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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study the distribution of type X collagen in thyroid cartilages of various ages is described. Fetal and juvenile thyroid cartilage was negative for type X collagen, but showed a strong staining reaction for type II collagen. Type X collagen and calcium deposition were first detected in thyroid cartilage of 18-to 21-year-old adults. Type X collagen was restricted to large chondrocytes near or in mineralized cartilage, confirming the notion that type X collagen precedes mineralization. From these observations it was concluded that chondrocytes in thyroid cartilage undergo differentiation steps that are similar, but much slower, compared to cells in growth plate and sternal cartilage. Some type X collagen-positive areas also showed staining for type I collagen, suggesting that there is a further differentiation of chondrocytes to cells which are characterized by the simultaneous synthesis of type X and I collagen. However, a dedifferentiation process during aging of thyroid cartilage where cells switch from synthesis of type II to type I collagen cannot be excluded.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The tissue localization was analysed of collagen X during human fetal and juvenile articular cartilagebone metamorphosis. This unique collagen type was found in the hypertrophic cartilage zone peri- and extracellularly and in cartilage residues within bone trabeculae. In addition, occasionally a slight intracellular staining reaction was found in prehypertrophic proliferating chondrocytes and in chondrocytes surrounding vascular channels. A slight staining was also seen in the zone of periosteal ossification and occasionally at the transition zone of the perichondrium to resting cartilage. Our data provide evidence that the appearance of collagen X is mainly associated with cartilage hypertrophy, analogous to the reported tissue distribution of this collagen type in animals. In addition, we observed an increased and often “spotty” distribution of collagen X with increasing cartilage “degeneration” associated with the closure of the growth plate. In basal hypertrophic cartilage areas, a co-distribution of collagens II and X was found with very little and “spotty” collagen III. In juvenile cartilage areas around single hypertrophic chondrocytes, co-localization of collagens X and I was also detected.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Thyroid cartilage — Mineralization — Matrix vesicles — Annexin — Collagen.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Mineralization and ossification of human thyroid cartilage first starts after the end of adolescence when the previously cartilaginous human skeleton has become ossified and the epiphyseal discs are in the process of closing. However, the mechanisms involved in mineralization and ossification of human thyroid cartilage are not well understood. Ultrastructural analysis of human thyroid cartilage revealed that mineralization started close to cartilage canals in a matrix containing gigantic collagen fibers (asbestoid fibers). Matrix vesicles were detected in mineralized areas and were often associated with needle-like crystals. For the first time we were able to isolate matrix vesicles from human thyroid cartilage by mild enzymatic digestions and ultracentrifugation. These particles were oval and varied in size; some were heavily calcified. They were enriched in alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and inorganic phosphate, suggesting that the particles contain Ca2+-Pi complexes. Immunoblot analysis of these vesicles revealed the presence of annexins II, V, and VI, membrane-associated, channel-forming proteins, which allow influx of Ca2+ into the vesicles and intralumenal crystal growth. In addition, the vesicles were associated with types II and X collagen, suggesting that this association not only anchors the vesicles to the extracellular matrix, but, as shown previously, also stimulates Ca2+ influx into these particles. In conclusion, matrix vesicles isolated from human thyroid cartilage contain all the components, enabling them to initiate and mediate the mineralization process in human thyroid cartilage.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Anchorin CII (annexin V) ; Cartilage calcification ; Chondrocalcin binding ; Collagen binding
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    FEBS Letters 294 (1991), S. 149-152 
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Calcium binding ; Cartilage calcification ; Chondrocyte hypertrophy ; Type X collagen
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Low-temperature specific heat measurements on the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CePb3 have been performed under pressures up to 1.3 GPa. From the shift of the anomaly atT N the magnetic phase diagram is constructed. The change of the shape of the anomaly, when the pressure exceeds 0.7 GPa, clearly indicates the crossover from one magnetic structure to another as had already been concluded from formern-scattering results. The Kondo temperature does not show a peculiar variation with pressure.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A concept is developed for interrelated optimizations in space missions that utilize extraterrestrial resources. It is shown that isolated (component) optimizations may not result in the best mission. It is shown that substantial benefits can be had through less than the best propellants, propellant combinations, propulsion hardware, and actually, some waste in the traditional sense. One ready example is the possibility of discarding hydrogen produced extraterrestrially by water splitting and using only the oxygen to burn storable fuels. The gains in refrigeration and leak-proof equipment mass (elimination) outweigh the loss in specific impulse. After a brief discussion of this concept, the synthesis of the four major components of any future space mission is developed. The four components are: orbital mechanics of the transportation; performance of the rocket motor; support systems that include power; thermal and process controls, and instruments; and in situ resource utilization plant equipment. This paper's main aim is to develop the concept of a figure-of-merit for the mission. The Mars Sample Return Mission is used to illustrate the new concept. At this time, a popular spreadsheet is used to quantitatively indicate the interdependent nature of the mission optimization. Future prospects are outlined that promise great economy through extraterrestrial resource utilization and a technique for quickly evaluating the same.
    Keywords: ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: NASA Space Engineering Research Center for Utilization of Local Planetary Resources; 16 p
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This program was undertaken in order to understand the complex nature of interdependent performance in space missions. At the first step in a planned sequence of progress, a spread sheet program was developed to evaluate different fuel/oxidizer combinations for a specific Martian mission. This program is to be linked with output attained using sophisticated software produced by Gordon and McBride. The programming to date makes use of 11 independent parameters. Optimization is essential when faced with the incredible magnitude of costs, risks, and benefits involved with space exploration. A system of weights needs to be devised on which to measure the options. It was the goal to devise a Figure of Merit (FoM) on which different choices can be presented and made. The plan was to model typical missions to Mars, identify the parameters, and vary them until the best one is found. Initially, most of the focus was placed on propellant selection.
    Keywords: COMPUTER PROGRAMMING AND SOFTWARE
    Type: NASA Space Engineering Research Center for Utilization of Local Planetary Resources; 4 p
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0022-4731
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 91 (1975), S. 97-104 
    ISSN: 0022-328X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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