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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Under certain conditions ships can affect the structure of shallow overlying layer clouds. It has been suggested that this is due to particles emitted from the ships, which increase the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei in the air, which, in turn, increases the concentrations of cloud droplets and reduces the average size of the droplets. Two ship track signatures in stratus clouds were observed simultaneously from a satellite and from an aircraft. The airborne measurements showed that in the ship tracks the droplet sizes and concentrations, as well as the total concentrations of particles, were substantially different from those in adjacent clouds. Furthermore, in-situ solar radiation measurements showed a significant enhancement in the upwelling radiance within the ship tracks at visible wavelengths and a significant reduction in radiance at 2.2 micrometers. Remote sensing measurements from the NOAA-10 satellite showed the effects of these differences in cloud structure as an enhancement in cloud reflectivity at 0.63 and 3.7 micrometers. These observations support the contention that ship track signatures in clouds are produced primarily by particles generated by ships.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1989; p 163
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower-level water cloud, that presents difficulties for retrieving cloud effective radius using single layer plane-parallel cloud models. The algorithm uses the MODIS 0.94 micron water vapor band along with CO2 bands to obtain two above-cloud precipitable water retrievals, the difference of which, in conjunction with additional tests, provides a map of where multilayered clouds might potentially exist. The presence of a multilayered cloud results in a large difference in retrievals of above-cloud properties between the CO2 and the 0.94 micron methods. In this paper the MODIS multilayered cloud algorithm is described, results of using the algorithm over example scenes are shown, and global statistics for multilayered clouds as observed by MODIS are discussed. A theoretical study of the algorithm behavior for simulated multilayered clouds is also given. Results are compared to two other comparable passive imager methods. A set of standard cloudy atmospheric profiles developed during the course of this investigation is also presented. The results lead to the conclusion that the MODIS multilayer cloud detection algorithm has some skill in identifying multilayered clouds with different thermodynamic phases
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is an earth-viewing sensor that flies on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, launched in 1999 and 2002, respectively. MODIS scans a swath width of 2330 km that is sufficiently wide to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km. MODIS provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 pm with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to en- able advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric properties. Twenty-six bands are used to derive atmospheric properties such as cloud mask, atmospheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties. In this paper we describe each of these atmospheric data products, including characteristics of each of these products such as file size, spatial resolution used in producing the product, and data availability.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: A birds eye view of the Earth from afar and up close reveals the power and magnificence of the Earth and juxtaposes the simultaneous impacts and powerlessness of humankind. The NASA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in an historical perspective. See the latest spectacular images from NASA remote sensing missions like TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua, which will be visualized and explained in the context of global change and man s impact on our world s environment. See visualizations of global data sets currently available from Earth orbiting satellites, including the Earth at night with its city lights. Shown in high resolution are visualizations of tropical cyclone Eline and the resulting flooding of Mozambique. See flybys of Cape Town, South Africa with its dramatic mountains and landscape, as well as satellite imagery of fires that occurred globally, with a special emphasis on fires in the western US during summer 2001, and how new satellite tools can be used to help fight these disasters from spreading further. See where and when lightning occurs globally, and how dramatic urbanization has been in the desert southwest since 1910. Spectacular visualizations of the global atmosphere and oceans are shown. Learn when and where carbon is absorbed by vegetation on the land and ocean as the product of photosynthesis. See demonstrations of the 3-dimensional structure of hurricanes and cloud structures derived from recently launched Earth-orbiting satellites, and how hurricanes can modify the sea surface temperature in their wake. See massive dust storms in the Middle East as well as dust transport sweeping from north Africa across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and Amazon basin. Learn where and how much the temperature of the Earth s surface has changed during the 20th century, as well as how sea ice has decreased over the Arctic region, how sea level has and is likely to continue to change, and how glaciers have retreated worldwide in a response to global change. We will illustrate these and other topics with a dynamic theater-style presentation, along with animations of satellite launch deployments and orbital mapping to highlight aspects of Earth observations from space.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: During summer of 2001 NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) obtained measurement of ocean angular distribution of reflected radiation or BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) aboard the University of Washington Convair CV-580 research aircraft under cloud-free conditions. The measurements took place aver the Atlantic Ocean off the eastern seaboard of the U.S. in the vicinity of the Chesapeake Light Tower and at nearby National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Buoy Stations. The measurements were in support of CLAMS, Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites, field campaign that was primarily designed to validate and improve NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite data products being derived from three sensors: MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) and CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System). Because of the high resolution of the CAR measurements and its high sensitivity to detect weak ocean signals against a noisy background, results of radiance field above the ocean are seen in unprecedented detail. The study also attempts to validate the widely used Cox-Munk model for predicting reflectance from a rough ocean surface.
    Keywords: Oceanography
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The authors describe the status of MODIS-N and its companion instrument MODIS-T (tilt), a tiltable cross-track scanning spectrometer with 32 uniformly spaced channels between 0.410 and 0.875 micron. They review the various methods being developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of determining the optical, microphysical, and physical properties of clouds and aerosol particles from spectral reflection and thermal emission measurements. In addition to cloud and aerosol properties, MODIS-N will be used for determining the total precipitable water vapor and atmospheric stability. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products are described, together with an example of their application to aircraft and/or satellite measurements.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); 30; 2-27
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Researchers briefly review the diffusion domain method for deriving the cloud similarity parameter and present preliminary analyses of the results thus far obtained. The presentation concentrates on the following points: (1) intercomparison of calibrated reflected intensities between the cloud absorption radiometer and the U.K. multispectral cloud radiometer; (2) quality control tests required to select those portions of an aircraft flight for which measurements are obtained within the diffusion domain; (3) case studies of the spectral similarity parameter of marine stratocumulus clouds; and comparisons of the experimentally-derived similarity parameter spectrum with that expected theoretically from the cloud droplet size distribution obtained from in situ observations.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1988; p 319-325
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The angular distribution of scattered radiation deep within a cloud layer was measured in marine stratocumulus clouds modified by the emissions from ships. These observations, obtained at thirteen discrete wavelengths between 0.5 and 2.3 microns, were obtained as the University of Washington Convair C-131A aircraft flew through a pair of roughly parallel ship tracks off the coast of southern California on 10 July 1987. In the first of these ship tracks, the cloud droplet concentration increased from 40 to 107/cu cm (125/cu cm in the second ship track). Simultaneous to this spectacular change, the aircraft measured interstitial aerosol (Aitken nucleus) concentration that increased from 400 to 1000/cu cm and cloud liquid water content that increased from 0.03 to 0.75 g/cu m. Broadband pyranometer measurements showed that the upwelling flux density increased from 150 to 280 W/sq m. These in-situ microphysics and broadband pyranometer results, together with AVHRR satellite images obtained with the NOAA-10 satellite, are described in detail by Radke et al., (1989). Internal scattered radiation measurements at selected wavelengths obtained with the cloud absorption radiometer (King et al., 1986) for a 100 km section of marine stratocumulus clouds containing these two ship track features are presented.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1989; p 165-169
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Simultaneous measurements of the liquid water content and particle size have assumed an important role in cloud physics as they help elucidate the mechanism of cloud particle formation and the mechanism of air mass-mixing in stratus clouds. Such measurements can reveal the modification of cloud air masses by anthropogenic aerosol particles (Coakley et al. 1987, Durkee 1989). Studies of the climatic impact of these modification processes on cloud microphysics seems to be urgent for understanding mechanisms of climate change. General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations can be improved by introducing a parameterization of cloud optical properties in terms of integrated liquid water content (liquid water path) and particle size (Slingo 1989). Motivated by the above mentioned circumstances, remote sensing techniques were developed for simultaneously retrieving the cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius, from which the liquid water path can be inferred. Statistical features of the cloud optical thickness (or liquid water path) and effective particle size for marine stratocumulus clouds are presented. These results were obtained during 4 days (7, 10, 13, and 16 July 1987) of observations with the Multispectral Cloud Radiometer (ER-2) and the Thematic Mapper (LANDSAT-5) during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE).
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1989; p 85-91
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A multiwavelength scanning radiometer was used to measure the angular distribution of scattered radiation deep within a cloud layer at discrete wavelengths between 0.5 and 2.3 microns. The relative angular distribution of the intensity field at each wavelength is used to determine the similarity parameter, and hence single scattering albedo, of the cloud at that wavelength using the diffusion domain method. In addition to the spectral similarity parameter, the analysis provides a good estimate of the optical thickness of the cloud beneath the aircraft. In addition to the radiation measurements, microphysical and thermodynamic measurements were obtained from which the expected similarity parameter spectrum was calculated using accepted values of the refractive index of liquid water and the transmission function of water vapor. An analysis is presented for the results obtained for a 50 km section of clean marine stratocumulus clouds on 10 July 1987. These observations were obtained off the coast of California from the University of Washington Convair C-131A aircraft as part of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE). A comparison of the experimentally-derived similarity parameter spectrum with that expected theoretically from the cloud droplet size distribution measured simultaneously from the aircraft is presented. The measurements and theory are in very close agreement for this case of clean maritime clouds.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1989; p 79-84
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