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  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: heart ; development ; CaMPK ; cAPK ; CDK ; cGPK ; Kkialre ; PKC ; Wee1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: During early postnatal development, cardiomyocytes, which comprise about 80% of ventricular mass and volume, become phenotypically developed to facilitate their contractile functions and terminally differentiated to grow only in size but not in cell number. These changes are due to the expression of contractile proteins as well as the regulation of intracellular signal transduction proteins. In this study, the expression patterns of several protein kinases involved in various cardiac functions and cell-cycle control were analyzed by Western blotting of ventricular extracts from 1-, 10-, 20-, 50-, and 365-day-old rats. The expression level of cAMP-dependent protein kinase was slightly decreased (20%) over the first year, whereas no change was detected in cGMP-dependent protein kinase I. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, which is involved in Ca2+ uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, was increased as much as ten-fold. To the contrary, the expressions of protein kinase C-α and ι declined 77% with age. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) such as CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, and CDK5, which are required for cell-cycle progression, abruptly declined to almost undetectable levels after 10-20 days of age. In contrast, other CDK-related kinases, such as CDK8 or Kkialre, did not change significantly or increased up to 50% with age, respectively. Protein kinases implicated in CDK regulation such as CDK7 and Wee1 were either slightly increased in expression or did not change significantly. All of the proteins that were detected in ventricular extracts were also identified in isolated cardiac myocytes in equivalent amounts and analyzed for their relative expression in ten other adult rat tissues. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:506-521, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: insulin ; heart ; development ; PI 3-kinase ; protein kinase B ; S6 kinase ; casein kinase 2 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The control of glucose uptake and glycogen metabolism by insulin in target organs is in part mediated through the regulation of protein-serine/ threonine kinases. In this study, the expression and phosphotransferase activity levels of some of these kinases in rat heart ventricle were measured to investigate whether they might mediate the shift in the energy dependency of the developing heart from glycogen to fatty acids. Following tail-vein injection of overnight fasted adult rats with 2 U of insulin per kg body weight, protein kinase B (PKB), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K), and casein kinase 2 (CK2) were activated (30-600%), whereas the MAP/ extracellular regulated kinases (ERK)1 and ERK2 were not stimulated under these conditions. When the expression levels of the insulin-activated kinases were probed with specific antibodies in ventricular extracts from 1-, 10-, 20-, 50-, and 365-day-old rats, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), PKB, S6K, and CK2 were downregulated (40-60%) with age. By contrast, ventricular glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) protein levels were maintained during postnatal development. Similar findings were obtained when the expression of these kinases was investigated in freshly isolated ventricular myocytes, where they were detected predominantly in the cytosolic fraction of the myocytes. Compared to other adult rat tissues such as brain and liver, the levels of PI3K, PKB, S6K, and GSK3β were relatively low in the heart. Even though CK2 protein and activity levels were reduced by ∼60% in 365 day as compared to 1-day-old rats, expression of CK2 in the adult heart was as high as detected in any of the other rat tissues. The high basal activities of CK2 in early neonatal heart may be associated with the proliferating state of myocytes. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:328-339, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-09-17
    Description: Article The hydrophobic surfaces of many two-dimensional (2D) materials prevents direct exfoliation in water without the use of chemical, surfactant, or surface treatments. Here, the authors exfoliate and disperse 2D materials in pure water via simple control of the temperature of the sonication bath and storage. Nature Communications doi: 10.1038/ncomms9294 Authors: Jinseon Kim, Sanghyuk Kwon, Dae-Hyun Cho, Byunggil Kang, Hyukjoon Kwon, Youngchan Kim, Sung O. Park, Gwan Yeong Jung, Eunhye Shin, Wan-Gu Kim, Hyungdong Lee, Gyeong Hee Ryu, Minseok Choi, Tae Hyeong Kim, Junghoon Oh, Sungjin Park, Sang Kyu Kwak, Suk Wang Yoon, Doyoung Byun, Zonghoon Lee, Changgu Lee
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-1723
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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