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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-01-24
    Description: In recent years, some major industries in transition economies, such as food and beverage, once epitomised industrial supremacy have lost significant market shares to it.s foreign competitors, both at home and abroad. Recognising the fact once pre-eminent world-wide economic position of former socialist economies has generally eroded significantly in recent years. Our study examines the competitive implications of the major determinants of competitiveness within a framework favoured by the Strategic Management theory in selected transition economies. Our research focuses on the three Baltic States and two of their major competitors within the Europe -Germany and EU in general. The main objective of our study is, therefore, to develop an analytical framework for analysing industrial competitiveness and to apply it to the food sector and it's related industries in these economies.
    Description: Seit einigen Jahren haben große Industriebereiche wie Lebensmittel- und Getränkeindustrie, einst überlegene Industriezweige, große Marktanteile an fremde Konkurrenzunternehmen abgeben müssen, sowohl im eigenen Land als auch im Ausland. In unserer Arbeit untersuchen wir die Auswirkungen der Hauptfaktoren des Wettbewerbs im Rahmen der Theorie des Strategic Management in ausgewählten im Wandel begriffenen Volkswirtschaften. Unser Hauptaugenmerk liegt auf drei baltischen Staaten und deren Hauptkonkurrenten . Deutschland und die EU im ganzen. Unser Hauptziel stellt dabei die Entwicklung eines Rahmens dar, mit dessen Hilfe industrieller Wettbewerb analysiert werden kann. Dieser Rahmen wird auf die Lebensmittelindustrie und verwandte Zweige in den entsprechenden Staaten angewendet.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: Since the beginning of the transition process from centrally planed to market economies, East European countries have experienced relatively high inflation and a market depreciation of their currency. Their monetary systems have gone through dramatic changes in the recent ten years, making the transition from a mono-bank to the traditional autonomous central bank. Some have adopted a currency board arrangement (CBA). Three candidate countries to the European Union (EU) - Bulgaria, Estonia and Lithuania -face the perspective of becoming a full-fledged members of the EU and after of the European Monetary Union (EMU). This paper investigates the issues and advantages of CBAs, especially in three transition countries (Estonia, Lithuania and Bulgaria) in the context of accession to the EU and to the European Monetary Union (EMU).
    Keywords: E42 ; E52 ; E61 ; F33 ; ddc:330 ; European Monetary Union ; currency board arrangement ; Exchange rate arrangements ; CEE
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: This paper examines the potential impacts of East-West migration of talents on the innovative capital and hence the long-run growth prospects in Eastern sending countries. Complementing previous studies, we examine the impact of high skill migration not only on the formation of human capital, but also consider migration's impact on knowledge capital in the sending countries. In line with previous studies we find that in the short- to medium-term high skill migration strictly reduces national innovative capital and hence increases the gap between East and West. However, these effects might be mitigated by factors such as reinforced education of workers, productive investment of remittances, return migration and increased knowledge transfer. Given that the emigration of highly skilled affects human capital differently than knowledge capital, addressing the adverse impacts of the most talented and highly skilled worker emigration efficiently, differentiated policies are required for human capital and knowledge capital.
    Keywords: D50 ; D80 ; F22 ; F24 ; H52 ; I21 ; J24 ; J61 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; International labour migration ; skilled workers ; growth ; human capital
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Halle (Saale): Leibniz-Institut für Agrarentwicklung in Mittel- und Osteuropa (IAMO)
    Publication Date: 2016-08-30
    Description: Im zentralplanwirtschaftlichen System der ehemaligen Sowjetunion war der Einzel-und Großhandel stark vernachlässigt. In den Transformationsjahren nahm sein Beitrag sowohl gemessen an seinem Anteil am BIP als auch anhand der Zahl der Beschäftigten erheblich zu. Das Ziel dieses Diskussionspapiers ist es, die Entwicklung der Strukturen im baltischen Lebensmittelhandel zu analysieren. Besonderes Interesse gilt dabei den Veränderungen der Betriebs- und Organisationsformen sowie der Marktstruktur. Die Umstrukturierung der Wirtschaft hatte erhebliche Veränderungen im baltischen Lebensmittelhandel zur Folge. Zu Reformbeginn führte die Privatisierung und zahlreiche Neugründungen zu einer Zersplitterung des Lebensmittelhandels. Leichte Teilbarkeit der zu privatisierenden Handelsbetriebe sowie mangelnde Kapitalverfügbarkeit der neuen Unternehmer hatte zur Folge, dass vor allem kleine (Familien-)Betriebe gegründet wurden. Seit 1996 sind zunehmende Konzentrationstendenzen zu beobachten. Durch die Modernisierung innovativer inländischen Unternehmen und dem Engagement westlicher Handelsorganisationen hat sich der Wettbewerbsdruck auf dem baltischen Lebensmittelmarkt stark erhöht. Die Dynamik des Wettbewerbs zeigt sich anhand zahlreicher Markteintritte (westlicher Handelsketten) und -austritte (unrentabler heimischer Unternehmen) sowie anhand zunehmender Konzentration von Marktanteilen bei größeren Unternehmen. Diese Entwicklungen lassen eine Erhöhung der Effizienz im baltischen Lebensmittelhandel erwarten.
    Description: In the centrally planned economy of the former Soviet Union, retail and wholesale trade were very much neglected. Since the beginning of transition the share of trade has increased considerably both in terms of its contribution to national product and employment. This paper analyses the structural development in the food retail sector of the Baltic states since the beginning of transition. It focuses mainly on the organisational changes, and change of the forms of enterprises as well as on changes in market structure in the Baltic food retail trade. The transformation of the economy has resulted in substantial changes in the Baltic food retail sector. At the beginning of reformation privatisation and establishment of numerous new forms has led to fragmentation in the food retail trade. Easy divisibility of trade enterprises included into privatisations as well as the lack of capital for new entrepreneurs are the major reason for the creation of mostly small (family) enterprises. However, from 1996 an increased tendency to concentration can be observed. Competition on the Baltic food market has intensified due to the modernisation of innovative domestic enterprises and appearance of western trading organisations. The dynamics of the competition becomes obvious by numerous market entrances (western trade concerns) and exits (of unprofitable domestic enterprises) as well as by an increased concentration of larger enterprises. This development allows to expect an efficiency increase in the Baltic food trade.
    Keywords: Q13 ; ddc:330 ; Lebensmittelhandel ; Baltische Länder ; Strukturwandel ; Transformation ; Food retailing and wholesaling ; Baltic States ; Structural Changes ; Transition ; Lebensmittelhandel ; Strukturwandel ; Betriebsform des Handels ; Nordosteuropa
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The free movement of workers is a highly controversial issue with regard to the Eastern enlargement of the European Union (EU). Members of the EU are extremely anxious of mass immigration flows from Central and Eastern Europe countries (CEECs). This paper estimates the potential migration and analyses socio-economic impacts of migration in the context of the EU enlargement. How many people might migrate from the Eastern European transition countries to Western Europe, and what will be the socio-economic consequences for home and host countries? In order to answer these questions we draw on previous literature as well as on our empirical work. In the empirical analysis we evaluate the size and the structure of current and future migration to Western Europe. In particular, we estimate the future migration pressure, based on economic conditions in the Baltic States and Western Europe. Our empirical results suggest that depending on assumptions 3-5 percent of home countries working population might emigrate after opening labour markets in the old EU member states.
    Keywords: F12 ; F22 ; L11 ; ddc:330 ; International labour migration ; EU integration ; panel data ; econometric model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Brussels: Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: In June 2016, the European Commission issued a new EU Blue Card proposal. This proposal is meant to make the EU more attractive for highly qualified workers from third countries. While strengthening the knowledge economy of the EU, the potential impacts of the new Blue Card proposal on developing countries are less known. The present study attempts to shed light on potential challenges and opportunities for developing countries by analysing conceptually the potential socio-economic impacts of the new EU Blue Card proposal. Our results suggest that the EU Blue Card may reduce the human capital, the knowledge capital, and hence growth and development prospects in developing countries, if not accompanied by appropriate policy measures. We identify and examine a number of policy measures, which could help turning the sending country challenges into opportunities. Our results suggest that policies implemented on the demand side of the labour market are more efficient than policies that address the supply side of the labour market, though they are less costly to implement. Developing countries can also benefit from the knowledge diffusion from the EU, if sufficient human resources are available to use this knowledge.
    Keywords: C68 ; D58 ; F22 ; J20 ; J61 ; J64 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; High-skill migration ; EU Blue Card ; knowledge-based capital ; endogenous growth ; developing countries.
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: In the age of the knowledge economy and globalisation, the skill mobility is perceived as one of the key factors for fully unlocking the human capital potential. The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) aims at increasing the workers' and learners' mobility among the EU Member States by making national qualifications readable across the EU. The present study analyses the impact of the EQF on education, skills, migration and the economic growth by performing a conceptual analysis and numerical simulations of the high-skill market integration through the EQF with a newly developed macroeconomic model of the European Commission. Whereas education is the main driver of the upward skill mobility, migration drives the spatial skill mobility. Our results suggest that the EQF would facilitate the high-skill labour market integration, which in turn would generate significant welfare gains for the EU. Both the social and macroeconomic effects of the EQF are positive at the aggregate level. However, their distribution across different Member States, regions, economic sectors and skill levels is differentiated. Hence, accompanying policy measures may be required to ensure an inclusive growth arising from the high-skill market integration.
    Keywords: C68 ; D58 ; F22 ; J20 ; J61 ; J64 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Education ; skills ; employment ; labour ; migration ; wage ; human capital ; macroeconomic modelling
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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