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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between market orientation, organizational learning and organizational performance. The study follows quantitative research strategy and cross-sectional survey design to collect data from manufacturing firms operating in Pakistan. Regression analysis and structural equation modeling techniques are used to analyze data. Results indicate that both market orientation and organizational learning significantly affect organizational performance. Additionally, customer orientation and inter-functional coordination are also positively related with all dimensions of organizational learning. Competitor orientation is significantly related with only knowledge interpretation dimension of organizational learning. This research explains how customer knowledge and competitor knowledge is instrumental towards an organization's learning behavior. This research is valuable to practitioners as they can learn how customer knowledge can provide them with multiple opportunities to create superior value. Similarly, competitor related knowledge is instrumental in drawing a competitive strategy to win customers. This paper is novel as it confirms market orientation as an antecedent of organizational learning. Furthermore, the paper explores significant implications of components of market orientation for organizational learning sub-processes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; market orientation ; customer orientation ; competitor orientation ; organizational learning ; Inter-functional Coordination ; knowledge acquisition ; knowledge distribution ; knowledge interpretation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Employees' knowledge sharing and creativity are two important zones of an organization's concern. While extant literature sheds some light on this area, there is paucity of research which looks into different facets of knowledge sharing and the mechanism through which it enhances employees' creativity. This study conceptualizes and empirically validates the role that collaborative culture can play in boosting two processes of knowledge sharing i.e. knowledge donation and knowledge collection which eventually enhances employees' creativity in the organization. Quantitative research strategy and cross-sectional survey method were adopted for the collection of data. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 189 managers working in 87 business organizations listed in Lahore Stock Exchange of Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling found out a significant and positive impact of trust, teamwork, and empowerment (facets of collaborative culture) on both knowledge donation and knowledge collection (dimensions of knowledge sharing). Cultural diversity was found to have insignificant impact on both knowledge-sharing dimensions. However, both knowledge sharing dimensions were having significant positive impact on employees' creativity. Findings of this research substantiate the current body of knowledge by identifying the role of collaborative culture in enhancing organizational creativity through different knowledge sharing dimensions.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; knowledge sharing ; collaborative culture ; creativity ; knowledge management ; Pakistan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) over time has emerged as a topic of debate among scholars and practitioners. What constitutes or encourages such behaviors among employees, especially when they are neither recognized nor paid, is an utmost concern. This study conceptualizes and empirically tests that demonstration of citizenship behaviors is determined by the perceptions which employees hold about the justice in their organization. Furthermore, the relationship between justice perceptions and citizenship behaviors is mediated by the level of job satisfaction among employees. In order to test this hypothesis, this study employed a quantitative strategy and crosssectional survey method for the collection of data. Data was collected from 149 employees through a self-administered structured questionnaire. Data was collected from different organizations of different sectors mainly in Lahore. Findings revealed that positive perception of employees in relation to organizational justice was a significant antecedent to employees' job satisfaction, which in turn mediated the relationship between justice perceptions and citizenship behaviors. These findings can be helpful for managers and organizational leaders to create justice in all aspects of organizational life. This study has also highlighted that job satisfaction is an important factor to promote citizenship sense through the inclusion of organizational justice. The variables selected for the model were few and it was beyond the scope of this research to incorporate all the factors. This study can improve academics' understanding of the influence that organizational justice and job satisfaction might have on employees' organizational citizenship behaviors in their jobs in the context of Pakistan.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; organizational citizenship behavior ; job satisfaction ; organizational justice ; mediation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: The Himalayan mountain forest ecosystem has been degrading since the British ruled the area in the 1850s. Local understanding of the patterns and processes of degradation is desperately required to devise management strategies to halt this degradation and provide long-term sustainability. This work comprises a satellite image based study in combination with national expert validation to generate sub-district level statistics for forest cover over the Western Himalaya, Pakistan, which accounts for approximately 67% of the total forest cover of the country. The time series of forest cover maps (1990, 2000, 2010) reveal extensive deforestation in the area. Indeed, approximately 170,684 ha of forest has been lost, which amounts to 0.38% per year clear cut or severely degraded during the last 20 years. A significant increase in the rate of deforestation is observed in the second half of the study period, where much of the loss occurs at the western borders along with Afghanistan. The current study is the first systematic and comprehensive effort to map changes to forest cover in Northern Pakistan. Deforestation hotspots identified at the sub-district level provide important insight into deforestation patterns, which may facilitate the development of appropriate forest conservation and management strategies in the country.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-20
    Description: Sustainability, Vol. 10, Pages 2069: The Significance of a Building’s Energy Consumption Profiles for the Optimum Sizing of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System—A Case Study for a Student Residence Hall Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su10062069 Authors: Khuram Pervez Amber Antony R. Day Naeem Iqbal Ratyal Rizwan Ahmad Muhammad Amar University buildings, such as student residence halls with year-round consistent energy demands, offer strong opportunities for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems. The economic and environmental feasibility of a CHP project is strongly linked with its optimum sizing. This study aims to undertake such an assessment for a CHP system for a student residence hall located in London, the United Kingdom (UK). The study also aims to undertake a sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of different parameters on the project’s economics. Necessary data are collected via interviews with the University’s Energy Manager. Modeling of the CHP system is performed using the London South Bank University (LSBU, London, the UK) CHP model. Results demonstrate that optimum sizing of CHP is crucial for achieving higher economic and environmental benefits and strongly depends on the authenticity of the energy consumption data, based on which the CHP is being sized. Use of incorrect energy data could result in an undersized or oversized CHP system, where an oversized system will result in higher negative results compared to an undersized system. Finally, Monto Carlo statistical analysis shows that electricity price is the significant factor that could affect the project’s economics. With an increasing spark gap, the payback period decreases, and vice versa.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-08-09
    Description: During the first steps of photosynthesis, the energy of impinging solar photons is transformed into electronic excitation energy of the light-harvesting biomolecular complexes. The subsequent energy transfer to the reaction center is commonly rationalized in terms of excitons moving on a grid of biomolecular chromophores on typical timescales
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 94: Heating and Cooling Degree-Days Maps of Pakistan Energies doi: 10.3390/en11010094 Authors: Khuram Amber Muhammad Aslam Faraz Ikram Anila Kousar Hafiz Ali Naveed Akram Kamran Afzal Haroon Mushtaq The building sector consumes about 40% of the world’s primary energy. Seasonal climatic conditions have a significant effect on the energy consumption in buildings. One of the famous methods used for decoding this seasonal variation in buildings energy consumption is the “Degree Days Method”. Data has been widely published for the heating and cooling degree days of different countries. Unfortunately, there is very limited and outdated published data for the heating and cooling degree-days of Pakistan. In this study, yearly average heating and cooling degree-days for different regions of Pakistan are established by using 30 year long-term measured data for different base temperatures. The data is presented in tables and figures whereas heating and cooling degree-day maps of Pakistan have been developed.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-10-13
    Description: Energies, Vol. 10, Pages 1579: Energy Consumption Forecasting for University Sector Buildings Energies doi: 10.3390/en10101579 Authors: Khuram Pervez Amber Muhammad Waqar Aslam Anzar Mahmood Anila Kousar Muhammad Yamin Younis Bilal Akbar Ghulam Qadar Chaudhary Syed Kashif Hussain Reliable energy forecasting helps managers to prepare future budgets for their buildings. Therefore, a simple, easier, less time consuming and reliable forecasting model which could be used for different types of buildings is desired. In this paper, we have presented a forecasting model based on five years of real data sets for one dependent variable (the daily electricity consumption) and six explanatory variables (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, weekday index and building type). A single mathematical equation for forecasting daily electricity usage of university buildings has been developed using the Multiple Regression (MR) technique. Data of two such buildings, located at the Southwark Campus of London South Bank University in London, have been used for this study. The predicted test results of MR model are examined and judged against real electricity consumption data of both buildings for year 2011. The results demonstrate that out of six explanatory variables, three variables; surrounding temperature, weekday index and building type have significant influence on buildings energy consumption. The results of this model are associated with a Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) of 12% for the administrative building and 13% for the academic building. Finally, some limitations of this study have also been discussed.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-08-12
    Description: Background: The combination of domains in multidomain proteins enhances their function and structure but lengthens the molecules and increases their cost at cellular level. Methods: The dependence of domain length on the number of domains a protein holds was surveyed for a set of 60 proteomes representing free-living organisms from all kingdoms of life. Distributions were fitted using non-linear functions and fitted parameters interpreted with a formulation of decreasing returns. Results: We find that domain length decreases with increasing number of domains in proteins, following the Menzerath-Altmann (MA) law of language. Highly significant negative correlations exist for the set of proteomes examined. Mathematically, the MA law expresses as a power law relationship that unfolds when molecular persistence P is a function of domain accretion. P holds two terms, one reflecting the matter-energy cost of adding domains and extending their length, the other reflecting how domain length and number impinges on information and biophysics. The pattern of diminishing returns can therefore be explained as a frustrated interplay between the strategies of economy, flexibility and robustness, matching previously observed trade-offs in the domain makeup of proteomes. Proteomes of Archaea, Fungi and to a lesser degree Plants show the largest push towards molecular economy, each at their own economic stratum. Fungi increase domain size in single domain proteins while reinforcing the pattern of diminishing returns. In contrast, Metazoa, and to lesser degrees Protista and Bacteria, relax economy. Metazoa achieves maximum flexibility and robustness by harboring compact molecules and complex domain organization, offering a new functional vocabulary for molecular biology. Conclusions: The tendency of parts to decrease their size when systems enlarge is universal for language and music, and now for parts of macromolecules, extending the MA law to natural systems.
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-0509
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 1133: Techno, Economic and Environmental Assessment of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System—A Case Study for a University Campus Energies doi: 10.3390/en11051133 Authors: Khuram Pervez Amber Tony Day Naeem Iqbal Ratyal Adnan Khalid Kiani Rizwan Ahmad Universities in the United Kingdom that have installed Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technology are making good moves towards achieving their CO2 reduction targets. However, CHP may not always be an economical option for a university campus due to numerous factors. Identification of such factors is highly important before making an investment decision. A detailed technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of CHP is, therefore, indispensable. This study aims to undertake a detailed assessment of CHP for a typical university campus and attempts to highlight the significance of such factors. Necessary data and information were collected through site visits, whereas the CHP sizing was performed using the London South Bank University (LSBU) CHP model. The results suggest that there is a strong opportunity of installing a 230 kW CHP that will offset grid electricity and boilers thermal supply by 47% and 75%, respectively, and will generate financial and environmental yearly savings of £51k and 395 t/CO2, respectively. A wider spark gap decreases the payback period of the project and vice versa. The capital cost of the project could affect the project’s economics due to factors, such as unavailability of space for CHP, complex existing infrastructure, and unavailability of a gas connection.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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