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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 464 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-21
    Description: We review and evaluate the design and operation of twenty-seven known autonomous benthic chamber and profiling lander instruments. We have made a detailed comparison of the different existing lander designs and discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of each. Every aspect of a lander deployment, from preparation and launch to recovery and sample treatment is presented and compared. It is our intention that this publication will make it easier for future lander builders to choose a design suitable for their needs and to avoid unnecessary mistakes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 435 data points
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: deep sea ; hydrothermal vents ; ecology ; Mid-Atlantic Ridge ; Azores Triple Junction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Until 1985, seven vent fields were described from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). An eighth field, Mount Saldanha (36° N), discovered in 1998, showed unusual geological and biological settings. Vent sites on the MAR exhibit varied environmental conditions, resulting from depth variation of the axis and associated physical parameters, and different source rocks. These could be considered as first order (i.e. most dominant) factors affecting the composition of vent communities on the MAR, in contrast to the East Pacific Rise (EPR) where geographical isolation appears to be a major determinant of faunal differences. In this paper, the geological setting and vent fluid composition of the fields are considered together with their community composition to tentatively ascertain the order of a hierarchy between dispersal and environmental control. The deepest fields (〉3000 m) are rather stable systems. The shallower fields, especially Rainbow and Menez Gwen, present some evidence of instability in time and space. The variability in fluid composition is related to phase separation processes (boiling/distillation of subsurface vent fluids) and to the nature of the basement rocks. Depending on depth, phase separation produces gas-enriched and metal-depleted fluids (Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike) or metal-enriched brines (Rainbow, TAG). In addition, high methane content characterises the fluids formed in ultramafic rocks (Rainbow, Logatchev) compared to basaltic rocks. The discrepancy in mineral particulate fluxes at Lucky Strike and Menez Gwen, on one hand, and TAG and Rainbow, on the other, is correlated to the predominance of the vapour or brine phase. The semi-quantitative description of the faunal composition of the different vent fields displays a continuum from Rimicaris-dominated to Bathymodiolus-dominated assemblages. Rather than geographic or bathymetric zonation, this gradation appears to be related to the metal content of the fluids. In addition, the penetration of non vent species into the vent environment increases with decreasing hydrostatic pressure and/or metal content in the fluids. Similarity analysis between vent communities shows that similarity is strongest between Menez Gwen and Lucky Strike (the shallowest fields), less significant between these sites and Rainbow, and weakest for Snake Pit. The inverse relationship between filter feeding organisms and metal concentration in vent fluids could result from a hindrance of mussel bed development by particulate or toxic metal fluxes, and has to be further investigated. Conversely, high metal and particulate content would less affect the more mobile Rimicaris populations. Considering specific similarities of endemic fauna between the four best known hydrothermal vents, the distance between vent fields appears to be a first order parameter. Nevertheless, within the proximity of the Azores Triple Junction area, and in the absence of geographical discontinuity, the similarity between fields stays rather low suggesting faunal islands that have distinct composition and habitat requirements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Marine biology 60 (1980), S. 17-26 
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In deep waters, deposit-feeding holothurians represent a high percentage of the total abyssal biomass and play an important ecological role in sediment modification. The feeding of these organisms, which inhabit a nutritively poor environment, has been studied by means of analyses of intestinal contents. Four abundant species: Psychropotes longicauda Theel, Paroriza pallens (Koehler), Benthogone rosea Koehler and Molpadia blakei (Theel), collected between 2000 and 4500 m in the Bay of Biscay during three cruises organized by CNEXO-COB, were chosen for this study. The morphological characteristics of the ingested alimentary particles are described and the results of analyses of the organic matter in the guts reported. The species studied do not exhibit a strict alimentary diet; 16 types of presumably nutritive particles were distinguished in the foregut. The nutritional sources for these holothurians mainly consist of organo-mineral aggregates, faecal matter and organic incrustations on mineral particles. Selection is for those detritus particles which are richest in bio-available compounds; a negative selection for living organisms is apparent. The finest fraction of the sediment (which is also the richest in organic matter) is also ingested. The concentrations of organic carbon and nitrogen in the sediment found in the foreguts are about 4 times and 6 times greater, respectively, than the concentrations in the environmental sediment. During passage through the intestines, assimilation of organic carbon and nitrogen is 15 and 22%, respectively; assimilation is maximal in the ascending intestine loop.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-08-22
    Description: We have compared 14 different sediment incubation chambers, most of them were used on bottom landers. Measurements of mixing time, pressure gradients at the bottom and Diffusive Boundary Layer thickness (DBL) were used to describe the hydrodynamic properties of the chambers and sediment–water solute fluxes of silicate (34 replicates) and oxygen (23 replicates) during three subsequently repeated incubation experiments on a homogenized, macrofauna-free sediment. The silicate fluxes ranged from 0.24 to 1.01 mmol m−2 day−1 and the oxygen fluxes from 9.3 to 22.6 mmol m−2 day−1. There was no statistically significant correlation between measured fluxes and the chamber design or between measured fluxes and hydrodynamic settings suggesting that type of chamber was not important in these flux measurements. For verification of sediment homogeneity, 61 samples of meiofauna were taken and identified to major taxa. In addition, 13 sediment cores were collected, sectioned into 5–10-mm slices and separated into pore water and solid phase. The pore water profiles of dissolved silicate were used to calculate diffusive fluxes of silicate. These fluxes ranged from 0.63 to 0.87 mmol m−2 day−1. All of the collected sediment parameters indicated that the sediment homogenization process had been satisfactorily accomplished. Hydrodynamic variations inside and between chambers are a reflection of the chamber design and the stirring device. In general, pump stirrers with diffusers give a more even distribution of bottom currents and DBL thicknesses than paddle wheel-type stirrers. Most chambers display no or low static differential pressures when the water is mixed at rates of normal use. Consequently, there is a low risk of creating stirrer induced pressure effects on the measured fluxes. Centrally placed stirrers are preferable to off-center placed stirrers which are more difficult to map and do not seem to give any hydrodynamic advantages. A vertically rotating stirrer gives about five times lower static differential pressures at the same stirring speed as the same stirrer mounted horizontally. If the aim is to simulate or mimic resuspension at high flow velocities, it cannot be satisfactorily done in a chamber using a horizontal (standing) rotating impeller (as is the case for most chambers in use) due to the creation of unnatural conditions, i.e. large static differential pressures and pre-mature resuspension at certain locations in the chamber.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-10-07
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Cossa, Daniel; Thibodeau, Benoit; Khripounoff, Alexis; Mas, Virginie; Chiffoleau, Jean-François; Schmidt, Sabine; Migon, Christophe (2012): Natural and anthropogenic trace metals in sediments of the Ligurian Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean). Chemical Geology, 291, 141-151, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.10.011
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The magnitude and the chronology of anthropogenic impregnation by Hg and other trace metals of environmental concern (V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd and Pb, including its stable isotopes) in the sediments are determined at the DYFAMED station, a site in the Ligurian Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean) chosen for its supposed open-sea characteristics. The DYFAMED site (VD) is located on the right levee of the Var Canyon turbidite system, at the end of the Middle Valley. In order to trace the influence of the gravity current coming from the canyon on trace metal distribution in the sediment, we studied an additional sediment core (VA) from a terrace of the Var Canyon, and material collected in sediment traps at the both sites at 20 m above sea bottom. The patterns of Hg and other trace element distribution profiles are interpreted using stable Pb isotope ratios as proxies for its sources, taking into account the sedimentary context (turbidites, redox conditions, and sedimentation rates). Major element distributions, coupled with the stratigraphic examination of the sediment cores point out the high heterogeneity of the deposits at VA, and major turbiditic events at both sites. At the DYFAMED site, we observed direct anthropogenic influence in the upper sediment layer (〈2 cm), while on the Var Canyon site (VA), the anthropization concerns the whole sedimentary column sampled (19 cm). Turbiditic events superimpose their specific signature on trace metal distributions. According to the 210Pbxs-derived sedimentation rate at the DYFAMED site (0.4 mm yr-1), the Hg-enriched layer of the top core corresponds to the sediment accumulation of the last 50 years, which is the period of the highest increase in Hg deposition on a global scale. With the hypothesis of the absence of significant post-depositional redistribution of Hg, the Hg/C-org ratio changes between the surface and below are used to estimate the anthropogenic contribution to the Hg flux accumulated in the sediment. The Hg enrichment, from pre-industrial to the present time is calculated to be around 60%, consistent with estimations of global Hg models. However, based on the chemical composition of the trapped material collected in sediment traps, we calculated that epibenthic mobilization of Hg would reach 73%. Conversely, the Cd/C-org ratio decreases in the upper 5 cm, which may reflect the recent decrease of atmospheric Cd inputs or losses due to diagenetic processes.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-04
    Description: A two year record of downward particle flux was obtained with moored sediment traps at several depths of the water column in two regions characterized by different primary production levels (mesotrophic and oligotrophic) of the eastern subtropical North Atlantic Ocean in the framework of the EUMELI program. Settling particles were collected with multisample conical sediment-traps moored at 1000 and 2500 depths in the water column. Time-series samples were obtained between February 1991 and November 1992. During this time, sampling intervals varied from 8 to 10 d and were synchronized at all depths and also between the oligotrophic and mesotrophic moorings. Sediment-trap sampling procedures were consistent with JGOF and described elsewhere. The data shown here are mass, particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), coccolithophore, opal, and lithogenic downward fluxes obtained during the entire sediment-trap deployments at both sites.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1956 data points
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: In this article, we evaluate the performance of a commercially available lifetime-based optode and compare it with data obtained by other methods. We performed a set of 10 different tests, including targeted laboratory evaluations and field studies, covering a wide range of situations from shallow coastal waters and wastewater treatment plants to abyssal depths. Our principal conclusion is that, owing to high accuracy (± 2 µM), long-term stability (more than 20 months), lack of pressure hysteresis, and limited cross-sensitivity, this method is overall more suitable for oxygen monitoring than other methods.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
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