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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: androgens ; androgen receptor ; antiandrogens ; differentiation ; osteoblasts ; proliferation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: While androgens have important skeletal effects, the mechanism(s) of androgen action on bone remain unclear. Current osteoblast models to study androgen effects have several limitations, including the presence of heterogeneous cell populations. In this study, we examined the effects of androgens on the proliferation and differentiation of a novel human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB/AR-6) that expresses a mature osteoblast phenotype and a physiological number (∼4,000/nucleus) of androgen receptors (AR). Treatment with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) inhibited the proliferation of hFOB/AR-6 cells in a dose-dependent fashion, while it had no effect on the proliferation of hFOB cells, which express low levels of AR (〈200/nucleus). In hFOB/AR-6 cells, co-treatment with the specific AR antagonist, hydroxyflutamide abolished 5α-DHT-induced growth inhibition. Steady-state levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and TGF-β-induced early gene (TIEG) mRNA decreased after treatment of hFOB/AR-6 cells with 5α-DHT, suggesting a role for the TGF-β1-TIEG pathway in mediating 5α-DHT-induced growth inhibition of hFOB/AR-6 cells. In support of this, co-treatment of hFOB/AR-6 cells with TGF-β1 (40 pg/ml) reversed the 5α-DHT-induced growth inhibition, whereas TGF-β1 alone at this dose had no effect on hFOB/AR-6 cell proliferation. Furthermore, treatment of hFOB/AR-6 cells with 5α-DHT and testosterone (10-8 M) inhibited basal and 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and type I collagen synthesis without affecting osteocalcin production. Thus, in this fetal osteoblast cell line expressing a physiological number of AR, androgens decrease proliferation and the expression of markers associated with osteoblast differentiation. These studies suggest that the potential anabolic effect of androgens on bone may not be mediated at the level of the mature osteoblast. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:96-108, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: androgens ; androgen receptor ; bone cells ; dehydroepiandrosterone ; dihydrotestosterone ; hydroxyflutamide ; osteoblasts ; stable transfection ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Androgens have significant beneficial effects on the skeleton. However, studies on the effects of androgens on osteoblasts are limited due to the absence of appropriate model systems that combine completness of the osteoblastic phenotype, rapid proliferation rate, and stable expression of the androgen receptor (AR). Thus, we stably transfected the conditionally immortalized human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB) with the human wild-type AR (hAR) cDNA. Compared to nontransfected hFOB cells, constitutive hAR mRNA expression in three independent hAR-transfected hFOB clones (hFOB/AR) was 15-fold higher in hFOB/AR-16, 62-fold higher in hFOB/AR-2, and 72-fold higher in hFOB/AR-6 cells, respectively, as assessed by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Detectable constitutive levels of hAR mRNA by Northern blot analysis were present in hFOB/AR-2 and hFOB/AR-6 cells, but not in hFOB/AR-16 or hFOB cells, respectively. Treatment with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) (10-8 M) for 24 h did not alter hAR mRNA steady state levels in the hFOB/AR cell lines. Nuclear binding studies demonstrated 152 ± 73 (mean ± SEM) functional hARs/nucleus in non-transfected hFOB cells, 3,940 ± 395 functional hARs/nucleus in hFOB/AR-2 cells, and 3,987 ± 823 hARs/nucleus in hFOB/AR-6 cells, respectively. Treatment with 5α-DHT increased the expression of a transiently transfected androgen response element-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (ARE-CAT) reporter construct in hFOB/AR-6 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner; no such effect was observed in transiently transfected hFOB cells lacking exogenously transfected hARs. Moreover, 5α-DHT-induced ARE-CAT expression was inhibited by the selective androgen receptor antagonist, hydroxyflutamide. In summary, we have developed and characterized androgen-responsive osteoblastic cell lines derived from normal human fetal bone that express physiological levels of functional hARs. These cell lines should provide a suitable model for further studies on the effects of androgens on osteoblast function, including the identification of potential androgen-regulated growth factors and cytokines. J. Cell. Biochem. 66: 542-551, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (P〈0.05 vs. baseline). This loss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (P〈0.05). Bone histomorphometry indicated increases in endocortical and cancellous bone formation rates and in trabecular thickness. These results demonstrate that short-term administration of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society (ISSN 1096-6374); Volume 12; 3; 178-83
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-23598 , 82nd Annaul Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace; 8-12 May 2011; Anchorage, AK; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: At approx.12 months, Bone Mineral Density (BMD) at most sites in men remained lower than would be predicted, raising concerns for long-term bone health consequences following space flight. Additional analyses based on longer follow-up are being conducted. Although the N is too small for definitive conclusions, women had lower rates of loss at load-bearing sites of the hip and spine immediately post-flight relative to men and smaller differences between observed vs. predicted BMD at most sites, both immediately and 12 months post-flight, relative to men. The role of other exposures/risk factors need to be explored to further understand these possible gender differences in BMD loss and recovery following long-duration space flight.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: JSC-CN-21865 , American Society of Bone and Mineral Research; 15-19 Oct. 2010; Toronto; Canada
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