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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: The Goal of project implementation was survey of biological roles of Northern pike, Esox lucius, in decreasing of Coarse fish and other un economics organisms in carps ponds and also increasing of final crops in hectare and determination of Suitable ration of pike in ponds. This project implemented by 5 treatment with 3 replicates for every ones in 2 years. The pike density was 200, 350, 500 and 650 fish individuals per hectare for 1, 2, 3 and 4 treatment, respectively, and fifth treatment was without pike. The treatments of 1 and 3 conducted in first year and other in second year of test period. At first, about 26 brooders Caught from Anzali Lagoon, and reproduced by artificial and semi - natural methods in Sefidroud Fisheries Research Station in 12–14 °c temperature. Produced larvae reared in earthen ponds and fries reached to weight of 10 -12 g after 45 days. Mean weight, length and survival rates of fish was 12.27 and 32.5 g, 11.44 and 15.83 cm, and 40 and 21% after 45 and 60 days, respectively. The carp density in ponds was 3500 fish individuals per hectare and stocking rates were 55 % silver carp, 20 % common carp, 10 % bighead carp and 15 % grass carp. In throughout of the experiment period, physico– chemical factors measured and plankton (phyto and zoo), benthos, un wanted fish and other organisms investigated. The biomass of unwanted fishes reduced to 76/81 and 60/6 % in first and second year of experiments respectively. The results showed that Esox lucius had effect in increasing of objective fish produce about 17.9 % and 3.9 % in first and second period of project implementation respectively. The average of fish produce in pond unit (2400 m^2)was 842 kg (3508 kg/ha ), 825 kg (3439 kg/ha) and 776 kg (3232 kg/ha) in first , second and control treatments first year of test period , and also in second year was 865 kg (3603 kg/ha), 877 kg (3652 kg/ha) and 848 kg (3531 kg/ha) in second , fourth and control treatments , respectively. A significant different found in final weight mean of common carp between treatments and Control ponds (P 〈0/05), as the weight of common carp in treatments ponds was 220 % in first year and 191 % in second year more than control pond. In end of the trial, the mean weight of Esox lucius was 265 ± 74, 276 ± 104, 159 ± 33 and 265 ± 89 g in 1, 2, 3 and 4 treatment, respectively. Survival rate of Northern pike in 1 to 4 treatment was 43.8, 55.2, 40 and 35.6 %, respectively.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Reservoirs are one of the most constructions for control and water supply for different usage that could have various social an economical effects. The Khandaghloo dam reservoir with area of 100 ha located in Mahneshan city of Zanjan province and related to Parichay river watershed. Khandaghloo reservoir is valuable water body that the aim of its establishment was supply of water for agriculture farms. The reservoir has been studied for responsible and sustainable fisheries exploitation proposes. Results showed that the reservoir categorizes as eutroph to super eutroph based on different indices.Also phosphorous is limiting factor of the water body.Totally 42 genera from 6 phyla including green-blue algae cyanophyta, diatoms (Bacillariophyta), green algae, chlorophyta, euglenophyta, pyrrophyta and xanthophyta has been identified and cyanophyta was the dominant group that comprise 74.3 % of phytoplankton population. The zooplankton of the reservoir comprised 4 phyla and 20 genera. 1 genera of the protozoa and rhizopoda, 1 genra of the ciliophora ,15 genera of rotatoria, 2 genera of cladocera has been identified in zooplankton communities. Tubificidae and chironomidae has been identified in all months of the survey. The mean total length of crayfish was 130.5±20.5 mm ( 636) and mean weight was measured as 69.4±34.1 g with maximum and minimum weight of 1.9 and 207.2 g respectively .Total biomass of crayfish in Khandaghloo reservoir estimated as 3.4 tones with a range of 1.1–5.7 tones. But it is recommended not to harvest for at least two year due to high mortality of the populations.The fishes of the reservoir comprised common carp Chinese carp (silver carp, big head and grass carp) (released), Caspian kutum (accidentally released by fishery sector) and some endemic species as Siamahii. The catch of the reservoir fluctuated between 8 to 26 tones during 2000-2010.The fish production of Khandaghloo reservoir ranged from 167 to 324 kg/ha based on different methods that by consideration of 100 ha area of the reservoir, the total production of fish fluctuated between 16.7 to 32.4 tones. The fingerling restocking of Chinese carp in Khandaghloo reservoir with density of 1500 fingerling/ha recommended as 68% of phytoplanktonivorous fish (silver carp) ,12% zooplanktonivorous fish (big head), 6.6% of Crass carp and 10% of benthophagous fish (common carp).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: Anzali wetland is one of the most important places for spawning fishes and zooplankton groups are the first consumer in this ecosystem. They are the perfect food for the larvae of fishes. Zooplankton status was evaluated in 6 stations of different areas of the Anzali wetland during March 2011 to February 2012. Sampling was done by tube (PVC) and passing through of 30 micron planktonic net. The samples were identified and counted by invert microscope. According to the results were identified 60 Genus and 6 phylum (11, 31, 10, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2 genus of phylum Protozoa, Rotatoria, Arthropoda, Gastrotricha, Mollusca, Tardigrada, Nematoda, Porifera, Annelida) respectively. The results showed that the maximum annual average density of zooplankton was observed with 2497 number per liter in Karkan station and the population was more in the summer than in other seasons. Phylum of Rotatoria,, protozoa and superclass Copepoda formed 48, 45 and 6percent of the density respectively. According to the results the population of zooplankton did not change much compared to past studies, excluding Protozoa but the diversity of all zooplankton group are declined very much. According to the statistical analysis Kruskal Wallis are not significant differences between density of zooplankton in different stations, months and seasons (p 〉 0.05), but significant differences were found in different phylum together (p〈0.05).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: These studies were conducted seasonally in 9 sampling period 1n 1991 to assess the physico-chemical parameter status of water of Balikhly chie river (the region after yamchi dam) of Ardabil Provence in relation to its potential for aquaculture development. Water samples were collected by rutner sampler and analyzed for temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total hardness, chloride, COD, CO_3 , HCO_3,Ca, mg ,TSS ,PO_4, NH_4 ,NO_2 ,NO_3, SiO_2, DO, SO_4 . The water quality showed temporal and spatial variation in this study .The result revealed that the water were slightly alkaline with high total hardness and bicarbonate alkalinity which indicate high buffering capacity to pH changes .the ranged of dissolve oxygen concentration were beetwin7.6 to 13.7 mg/l with mean value of 10.98mg/l which were above the permissible oxygen cocentratio over all study site. the mean water temperature was 17.79 and ranged between 1.6 to 19.6 that is suitable for cold water fish culture while seasonal temperature variation showed that winter is desirable for hatcheries and other seasons for culture practices. Electrical conductivity value ranged between 873 to 1502 with mean of 1135 falls within the limits of suitable salinity ranges for rainbow trout culture. The turbidity and TSS ranged between 20-60FTU and 60168mg/l respectively The level of TSS concentration were little higer than80 ppm lmits.The values obtained for physicochemical parameters in Balikhly chie river were in conformity with recommended values for fresh water fish farming standared. The fish production potential based on water divertion and oxygen concentration over four study site from yamchi dam to downstream without applying any aeration systems were 38.6, 27, 59 and 27 metric tons respectively.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Use and enrichment of live food resource in fish farms have been interested and highly demanded. Crustacean are one of the important groups. The Pontogammarus maeoticus dominated in southern Caspian Sea shore with a high abundance. This study was designed in order to adaptation and usage of amphipoda in fish culture ponds. The first part have been surveyed the laboratory experiments including of; to increasing and developing of P.maeoticus in 200 litter container, the effects of salinity on growth and survival of amphipods in many aquariums, the culture of common carp with amphipods and growth determination of them. Chemical composition analysis of P.maeoticus and carps fed by amphipods in compare to cultured carps from ordinary ponds. Due to concern about common healthy the heavy metal concentration has been measured in P. maeoticus, carp which were fed by amphipods and the cultured carps in earth ponds. In second phase; the adaptation of two amphipods species, P. maeoticus and Obesogammarus acuminatus was studied in fish ponds where some cages with sandy soft substrate had been provided for amphipoda replacement. Also a small surface of ponds surrounded by net and covered by Azola plant, a habitat suitable for to putting of O. acuminatus. Production of amphipoda had not the successfully results in large tanks. Aquariums with Caspian Sea water had the prosper results where the specimens were breeding and developing properly, even though in some aquarium with freshwater increased the amphipods number. The chemical composition had not significant difference between two kind of cultured carps while the organic component in amphipoda had a high quality. The better quality of cultured carp by amphipod diet have been confirmed by organoleptic test. The results of heavy metal measurement in amphipoda showed a high concentration which some of them were transmitted to cultured carps. Result of amphipoda replacement in cage was not satisfy and the specimens were died after some days. According to hydro-chemical parameters the oxygen poorness and high trophy levels were the affective factor to abolish of specimens in cages. It seems that there are many type of P.maeoticus that can be adapted in different salinities. The molecular differentiation should be investigated to choose the suitable type of this spices for utilization in freshwater fish ponds. In other hand it can be used in fish culture ponds that will be supplied by brackish water.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: Phytoplankton groups are very important producers in the Anzali lagoon that have a significant role in the quality of water and the need to be constantly study their sequence and density. The survey was conducted in six workstations March 1389-Feb 2012. Samples were taken for a liter of water with plicae (P.V.C) and fixed with formalin to 4% ratio. Five ml of the sample after becoming homogeneous, was sequestration for 24 hours in the laboratory and identified and counted by invert microscope. Based on the results of this reviews 67 genus (22, 26, 9, 5, 1, 2, 1, and 1 genus respectively of the Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta branches, Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta Chrysophyta, Pyrrophyta, the Xanthophyta) were identified. The results showed that the phytoplankton density was the most in Sorkhankol and Komeh Aghajani stations with annual average of 24387483±5643414 and 20381250 ± 5488084 per liter respectively. The Bacillariophyta ( particularly Cyclotella) was dominant in all of stations but high density of blue green algae (Cyanophyta) in Komeh aghajani station from July to mid-October have caused the annual average of these phylum is more than Bacillariophyta. In General, the average density of phytoplankton was the highest in summer than other seasons and was the lowest value in the fall. The number of the genus identified in this survey is less than previous studies. Compare this survey with the last studies reviews shows that diversity is reduced in the current situation in the Anzali than previous studies. According to the statistical analysis of the Kruskal Wallis, the density of phytoplankton had no significant differences in the different months, stations and seasons (p〉0.05) but the phytoplankton phylums have significant differences (p〈0.05) together.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: Anzali wetland is one of the most important ecosystem in the southern Caspian Sea, acts as a special ecotone between different ecosystems; terrestrial, the Caspian Sea, brackish and fresh water environments. The hydro chemical and nutrients parameters were monthly studied in 10 locations of Anzali wetland for one year from May 2014. Trophic status index was calculated by different parameters including chlorophyll a, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and transparency. Results showed that the annual average of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and dissolved oxygen were 1.023±0.523, 0.113± 0.105 and 8.71 ± 2.63 mgL^-1 respectively. While no significant difference was observed in total nitrogen (P〉0.05), total phosphorus showed a significant difference (P〈0.05) among locations. Chlorophyll a varied between 0.6 to 330 (average 47.4 ± 65.0) µgL^-1. EC varied between 254 and 14250 µm and had a significant difference among locations (p〈0.05). The TN/TP was lower than 10 in Anzali wetland (except in western area) that show the limitation role of TP in eutrophication process. According to results while the western area and SiahKeshim are observed in eutrophic and super eutrophic status, the rest of regions are classified as hyper eutrophic status. Decrease of nutrient components from inlet rivers and to remove the aquatic plants in Anzali water bodies are recommended to control of eutrophication process in Anzali wetland.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: The limnological study of the Golabar dam showed that in the Glabar dam inspite of bing its early establishment due to high nutrient and organic matter is located in eutrophic stage. the pH as well as bicarbonate levels shows that buffering capacity of the lake is high and the value of inorganic and organic matter measured are not considered as limiting factor for warme and cold water aquaculture. In the plankton survey 44 species of phytoplankton and 25 species of zooplankton were identified. Cyclotella , Nitzschia, Synedra and Trachelomona from phytoplankton and Polyarthera , Keratella , Filinia , Pompholyx from zooplankton were the dominant spicies.the Bacillariophyta from phytoplankton with 76.5 percent and Rotatoria zooplankton to with 76.2 percent considered the highest abundant . The average frequency of phytoplankton and zooplankton were 5*106 and 723 individual per litter. The Shironomide and Tobificide were the only two bentic group were identified in reservoir wehre their mean frequced were 293.75 and 224.30 respectively. The average biomass of bentic organism were 1.44±0.97 gr/m2.In the survey 12 species of fishes were identified. The potential natural production have been estimated to be 2.8 to 15.5 kg for bentivorous fish and varied from 53 to 175 kg /hec for plankton consumer fishes .The low temperature in several months as well as ice covered of the lake surface in particular in the months of duty and Bahman are the limiting factor of either warm or cold water fish production.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: Qhar-khetlu dam reservoir is in the central part of Ijrud city of Zanjan province with a reservoir volume of 500000 and a water volume of 900000 cubic meters, covering an area of 6 hectares and containing 3500 hectares of the watershed in order to control seasonal floods, drinking water in the village, strengthening the aquifers of the area and As a water supply in the dry seasons, 120 hectares of agricultural land was planted for irrigation.Study of this water source with the aim of measuring biological and non-biological factors, determination of aquaculture production and Fish release capacity and fishing capacity for optimal use of fishery management in Zanjan province was done in 2006.The results of hydrochemical analysis of the water of Qharkhetlu dam reservoir showed that the minimum and maximum temperature of water ranged from 4.5 to 26 ° C, the pH of the water was 4.7 to 8.8, the dissolved oxygen was 7.7 to 12.2 mg, the total water hardness fluctuation was 154 194 mg/L and electrical conductivity of 272 to 390 micrometers per square centimeter, the water transparency was 25 to 380 centimeters.In this study, six phytoplankton classes with 31 genera and 3 classes of zooplankton with 14 genera were obtained. The abundance of phytoplanktons was counted from 150,000 to 206,000 per liter, and the average chlorophyll a, 1.10 micrograms, was estimated. The frequency of zooplanktons were 32 to 132 per liter, as well as the mean of 544 per square meter of macrobenthos.By comparing of the physical, chemical and biological factors and also the results of previous studies of this water source, the conditions for the introduction of warm water and cold water fishes including silver carp, big head carp, rainbow trout out and native fishes including species of Barbus and Capoeta genera are suitable. Estimation of Qhar-khetlu dam reservoir production is 80 kg/ha and its production capacity is 484 kg per year.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: The Taham dam reservoir has been established in order to provide drinking water of Zanjan population as far as 15 km in a mountain region at 1900 meter altitude with a 317 ha surface area. This study was conducted on biotic and a biotic factors in order to recognize of aquaculture possibility within drinking considerations. The results showed the less abundance of phytoplankton with 2 million/l. where abundant of zooplankton was 266 /l. Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta belong to phytoplankton and Rotatoria belong to zooplankton were dominated among identified plankton phylum. There were identified 45 and 32 genus of phytoplankton and zooplankton respectively. There were identified 5 groups of benthos that Tubificidae, Hirudina had the most frequency, and the biomass of benthos was varied from 1.1 to 23.7 g /m^2. The ichtiology survey showed presence of 6 species in the lake that Alburnoides bipunctatus, Capoeta capoeta, Leuciscus cephalus were the most abundance in the catch. L. cephalus was recorded with the maximum size of 870 g while the most frequent weight class was 150 450 g for C. capoeta,, L. cephalus . Diet survey showed the adequate feeding of fishes in lake also the observation of leech in trout guts was very considerable. The reproduction study displayed that a partial of matured fishes were succeed in breeding. Leuciscus cephalus have been known as a typical species with commercial size and high abundance which will be needed a fisheries management in Taham Lake to sustainable exploitation. The hidrochemical results indicated low nutrients values while total nitrogen was varied from 0.32 to 0.61 mg/l. and the Chl-a was varied from 7.9 to 25.9 μg/l. The oxygen amount was 4.5 to 8.4 mg/l even in 65 meter depths. Total hardness average was about 149 mg/l where the Ca and Mn were measured in a low values. Trophic model in Taham lake showed the early stage of mesotrophy while other lakes and wetlands in north of Iran had been progressed in mesotrophic level.
    Keywords: Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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