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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-04
    Description: From June 2004 to March 2006, a survey in Iran waters (Bushehr province) has completed. Sampling was accomplished in two area, north and south. In this period 15 cruises achieved in summer and 3 cruises in autumn and winter. In each cruise of north and south area 18 and 30 stations were sampled respectively. Stations row on three depth stratums that is, below 10 m, 10-20 m, and 20-30 m in total area from Bahrekan to Motaf. Some Biological parameters such as sex stages, sex ratio, mean total length, species composition were measured. Duration of shrimp fishing season in years 2004, 2005 and 2006 were 40, 44 and 40 days in summer respectively. In June and august the Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) in south was more than northern area. CPUE increases in north area especially at the end of summer during fishing season gradually. Computing on Biomass estimation resulted 674, 1024 and 873 ton in years 2004, 2005 and 2006 respectively for all shrimp species (usually tiger shrimp, white shrimp and other). Total commercial landing of shrimp catch in above years were 1602, 1597 and 1110 ton respectively. Percentage of tiger shrimp in commercial landing in above years was 77, 75 and 84 respectively. We found that the least mean length of tiger shrimp was observed in southern area especially from Motaf to Rodmond stations. The schools of prawn penaeus semisulcatus enter to Bushehr waters from southern area that is Motaf region. Other than Motaf; Nakhilu, Rase khan and Rod-mond show same characteristics. Also in this region, density of shrimp increases with depth in most summer cruises. The result from analyses of gonad maturation studies shows the adult and mature females (stages III and IV) of P. semisulcatus accumulate in northern area at the end of autumn. This stock catches in autumn by illegal fishing.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Increasing of biodiversity and reduction of production costs and alo increasing of shrimp production are the main elements of production security and continuation of aquaculture of shrimp in the country. The hypothesis of this study is made on the basis of aquaculture of pacific white legged prawn, litopenaeus vannamei, and that is economically better than Indian white prawn in Bushehr area. This study was carried out with the objectives of determination of bionormatives of pacific white legget prawn and yield estimation per square meter and has been compared with Indian white prawn. During 1384-85. In this study, the field operations were carried out after primary preparation and water enrichment with the juvenile prawn (pL 15) with 20 prawn per squar meter in the 3 ponds. During the study the phisico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, ocsysion, pH,two times per day , in the morning and evening and salinity , transpiration and depth water , only one time in a day were measured .The health of prawns and also sampling for the calculation of body weight were carried out in every 10 days . Feeding in the first month was randomly and after that was being continued based on the mean of the body weight. The results of this study have showed that the growth of this species is very fast so that during 90 days with the capacity of 20 prawns per squar , meter, it can be reached to 19.59 gr body weight with the growth rate of 0.217 gr . The mean of total production was 2737.5 kg per hectar with FCR=1. During this study the salinity from 33 ppt to 54 ppt, water temperature from 24.3°c to 35.2°c, occsysion from 2.4 to 11.89 mg/l , pH from 7.83 to 9.01 , transparency from 35 cm to 90 cm and water depth from 100cm to 145 cm were measured and recorded . In the second year, the comparison of growth rate of white legged prawn and Indian white prawn was carried out in the four ponds. The results of this study showed that during 110 days. White legged prawns was reached to average of body weight 14.66 gr and Indian white shrimp, reached to 10.75 gr. The economical assessment showed that white legged prawn has an economical advantage around 2.59 times during 110 days with the capacity of 35 prawns per hectar.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: To introduce the native commercial shrimp species to aquaculture industry, the Iranian Fisheries Research Organization conducted a project to investigate the possibility of reproduction and cultivation of the banana shrimp (Penaeus merguensis). The present work has been carried out from 21st March 2001 in two phase, reproduction and cultivation, in Iran Shrimp Research Center. The main objectives of this study was to find the possibility of reproduction and cultivation of banana shrimp with emphasis on its cost and benefit and to find if this species could be introduced to aquaculture industry in Iran. In this work, 42 brood stocks of banana shrimp caught in Jask waters and were transported to Bushehr. The shrimps were reproduced in aquaculture research station, and then cultivated in 0.4 ha ponds in Heleh region. Most of the broodstocks perished, due to long distance of Jask from Bushehr province, or had problem in hatching. Finally 8 of broodstock shrimps spawned. In 3 cases, the reared naplii larva suffered high mortality, but the other 5 spawner’s bread successfully. The post larvae were introduced to the shrimp ponds. The primary stocking was 360,000 larvae, introduced to each of two 4 m 3 tanks. The survival in both tanks for mysis stage was 83% but for PL stages, the survival was 5% for Tank 1 due to disease outbreak (until PL 24), and 62% for Tank 2. On 10 th June 2001 the PL 24 were stocked into the ponds but unfortunately due to adaptation problem, all of the shrimps perished. It seems that banana shrimp couldn’t to be adapted to the pond condition in Heleh region. On the basis of the results, the reproduction of the banana shrimps is achievable, but broodstocks needs to be transferred to reproduction areas as soon as possible to reduce stress on the shrimps. Our finding shows that the optimum conditions of salinity and temperature for growth of the reared banana shrimp in Heleh region is 33ppt and 30 °C, respectively.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Description: This study was carried out in August – september 2009 in Bushehr province waters. Two different shrimp bottom trawls were used in which were woven by Poly Amid and Poly Ethylene with mesh sizes (stretched) of 50 mm and sack with 35 mm. Also 2 different vessels of two dhows and one steel ship each with 26 and 30 hauls were used and taken in to comparison from point of obtained results. Total catch of PA and PE trawels were 4592 and 5535 kg of which the ratio of shrimp catch and by catch for PA trawl was 32.4 and 67.6 % respectively; and for PE trawl was 34.2 and 65.8%. Total catch of PA and PE trawls of steel trawler ( ship ) were estimated 3158.0 and 4784.7 kg, respectively, of which the shrimp/ bycatch ratio was 6.6 : 93.4%. There was a higher amount of bycatch for PE comparing to PA trawl (p〈0.05). on the other hand the decrease of shrimp and bycatch for PA comparing to PE dhow trawlers were 21.3 and 15.0% and for ship were 34.6 and 34.0% respectively. The weight ratio is 1:15 i.e . in PE ship trawl, in proportion to on kg shrimp, 15 kg bycatch was harvested. it is proposed to standardize the mesh size and also to do obligtory the instal of squared mesh size panel .
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-08
    Description: The distribution and stock assessment of edible bivalves were carried out in Bushehr shoreline areas (from 50֯ 38 - 29֯ 27 to 52֯ 41 - 27֯ 17 ) throughout the period of September 2008 - 2009. The objectives of this study were identifying the location of edible bivalves, biomass estimation, to estimate the growth parameters and natural mortality. Samples were obtained at roughly monthly or bimonthly from 7 areas and some of the at low tide during the year from 4 areas. Transects were selected at random direction and at the zigzag pattern in every area, so that is cover all of the shell beds. In each transects one or two sampling quadrat (0.25 m^2) were placed randomly. Depending on the area size the number of the quadrat were different. After the removal of the stones and debries, the edible bivalves (empty and live bivalves) and some of the decoration shells were identified and numbered. Some of the samples were transferred to a bag and taken back to the lab for further identification and further analysis. In this study, the percentage of samples was used to show the distribution of the species in different areas. Faunal affinity between stations was calculated by Sorensen formula. For the purpose of the stock abundance, the mean number of the shells in each quadrat was regarded as an estimate of stock mean. The total stock in the investigated areas was obtained by multiplying the mean by the ratio of the stock area to the quadrat area (0.25 m^2). Confident limits 0.95 % or 95 probility was given for precise the estimates. The length of some of the bivalves was measured from dextral to sinistral with vernier calipers to the nearest 0.1 millimeter. In some of the species the length frequency was used to estimate growth and natural mortality parameters. A subset of samples of Solen brevis was taken to the laboratory for the precise measurements, and relationship between body weights and total length. Surface sediment samples (5-20 cm) inhabited by some clam species were sampled in some areas. Water temperature and salinity were recorded during the survey in the sampled areas. A total of 45 species or species group was identified in the study area. The main area distributions for live edible bivalve, Solen brevis were located at Bupatil, Kaloo, Piazi and Bordekhoon. Other bivalve, Paphia cor was distributed in the Gassir, but empty bivalve shell was seen in the Bordekhoon shoreline. A limited tidal coastal area of Ganaveh has been covered by a pearl oyster species, Pinctada radiate that attached in the rocky beds. The empty shells of this species and other genus of the family were distributed in the other areas such as Golestan and Nayband. The most important areas for the decoration shells were located in the Golestan and Nayband. The empty bivalve shells, Trachycardium lacunosum were distributed in Lavar shoreline. The other species or species group were distributed in the shoreline of the study areas in different months with the low abundance. The growth parameters of two alive species, Paphia cor and Solen brevis were estimated. The Von Bertalanffy growth parameters for Paphia cor were estimated as K = 0.8 Year^-1, L_∞= 55 mm and t0 =-0.45 and for Solen brevis K=0.7 Year^-1, L=120 mm and t0 = -0.35. . Estimated natural mortality rate for Paphia cor was M=0.57 and for Solen brevis M=0.26. The maximum ages (Tmax) calculated were 50 months for Paphia cor and 54 months for Solen brevis. The mean biomass of Solen brevis in Bupatil was 3.25 1.1 shells per quadrat with a maximum peak 4.6 shells per quadrat in October (Mehr) and minimum 1.5 shells per quadrat in Augest (Mordad). For the pearl oyster, Pinctada radiata in the Ganaveh this estimation was obtained in maximum peak in July (Tir) 60.5 shells per 100 m^2 and minimum in March (Esfand) 3 per 100 m^2. Mean biomass for this species was estimated 27.7±24.2 shells per 100 m^2. The mean biomass of P. cor was 8.8 2.2 shells per quadrat and with a maximum in February (Bahman) and minimum in November (Abban).
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: Present study was conducted in the Persian Gulf (Iranian waters) from 2009 to 2012. The main objective of the research was economical evalution of the stock enhancement of banana prawn (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) and green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) in the studied area. Also tagging effects on the growth and mortality of tagged shrimp were studied. In banana prawn, broodstock shrimps were hatched in June. In July 2010 and 2011some of the juvenile of this species were marked by red fluorescent liquid injection and released were made at night in the estuaries of Tiab, Kolahi and Koolgan in the Hormozgan province. 84000 juveniles of banana prawn in 2010 and about 50000 in 2011 were released in this area. In Bushehr province waters, adults shrimp were reared and when juveniles reached to optimum size, some of them were tagged by red and blue coloures and were released in the coastal waters of Bandargah and Delvar. Tagging and releasing program of green tiger prawn was performed in 2010 and 2012. A total number of 8000 prawn in 2010 and about 30000 juveniles prawn in 2010 were released. Activities for recaptured shrimps were informed by posters describing the tagging program that were distributed to local peoples, as well as local magazines, and a tagging program awareness film was broadcast on national television three times prior to the shrimp fishing season and during catch season. To encourage people to report recaptures a reward of two handered thousent riales was paid for the return of each marked shrimp accompanied by information. Economical evaluation of banana prawn was performed based on releasing and recaptured program in 2011. As it mentioned in this year 50000 of juvenile shrimp were tagged and released. At the same time 4700000 of unmarked shrimp were released in this area. In the shrimp season 11 (./022%) of tagged shrimp were recaptured. Movements of tagged shrimp were northwesterly to released area. Weight average of tagged prawns was 1.2 gram. Mean weight of the recaptured prawns was 22.06±4.9 gram. Body weight Growth of the recaptured prawns was between 16-26 grams with the growth speed of 0.88-1.41 per week. The number of recaptured prawn to the released prawn was 0.022 percent. Based on the released prawns (4700000) to the recaptured percent (./022%), about 103400 of released shrimp with mean weight of 2.5 tones were observed in the Hormozgan shrimp catch. The average price of shrimp in the studied year in the local market was 85000 Rials per kilogram. These results showed that the ratio of profit is 210 milion riales. In the taggiing program of green tiger prawn in the Bushehr waters only one recaptured shrimp was observed in the catch season (2012). Total weigth and total length of this prawn was 99 gram and 22 centimeter respectively .given the small percentage of the recaptured, economical analyses was not performed on this species. The effects of tagging on the growth and mortality of green tiger prawn were studied. The present study was carried out in the shrimp research station in Bandargah and Abzistan shrimp Hatchery Company in Delvar during 2010 and 2012. The accuracy of the study was more rialable in 2012. In this year growth and mortality of juveniles that was marked by red and blue coloures, were studied in both area Bandargah and Delvar. In Bandargah, three tanks of 300 l each with 30 specimens were used for untagged shrimp as a control group, and tagged with injected liquid fluorescent during 98 days. Length and weigh of 10 specimens were measured evenly in different times. ANOVA results (α = 0.1 and α = 0.5) showed no significant differences between length growth of tagged shrimp and control group. The mortality of two groups was evaluated by numbering of remained shrimps and the average of survival was 52 percent in the tagged and 44.5 percent in tagged shrimps. In the Delvar station, Abzistan Company, the specimens were kept in the 9 tanks each 300 l that included of 30 untagged shrimps, 30 blue tagged shrimps and 30 red florescent tagged shrimp. The growth and mortality of this station were evaluated during 110 days. The growth rate of the specimens were measured and recorded evenly. The results of ANOVA (α = 0.1 and α = 0.5) showed no difference significantly in the weight growth of tagged and control groups. The mortality rates among the control group, red tagged and blue tagged were 63 percent, 59 percent and 40 percent. The mortality of the groups was differences in the two stations and it seems the management and environmental conditions were more affected on the mortalities. The results of the study show that the ratio of profit to the coast is 0.46 that is covering half of the coasts, so that the expenditures are two times more than profit. This result is the minimum of economical value of stock enhancement of shrimp. The results of study showed that the injected tags into the body tissue of shrimp has no affected on the growth rate and mortality.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: This study was conducted to determine the opening and closure of Penaeus semisulcatus fishing season in July, August and September during 2012-2014 in the waters of the Bushehr province. 30 stations were hauled based on a Stratified Random Sampling design in three depth layer of less than 10, 10-20 and more than 20 meters. The optimum dates of opening shrimp fishing season for the years of 2012-2014, were calculated as 4th, 28th and 13th July respectively. The closures of Shrimp fishing season for years of 2012-2014 were determined to be 10th September, 29th of August and 5th of September. The estimated biomass were for all of shrimp species in the years 2012-2014, 930, 1009 and 526 tonnes respectively. Penaeus semisulcatus contributed 92, 96 and 99% of the shrimp stock in the mentioned years. The CPUE (catch per hour) were calculated to be 1.6, 16.9 and 6.9 kg per hour, in the years 2012-2014, respectively. The highest aggregation of Green tiger Shrimp (P. semisulcatus) were observed in 10-20 depth meters layer in southern waters of Bushehr province at the fishing areas (Motaf to rostami). The changes in climatic conditions resulted in different dates of the opening season and probable illegal fishing may have caused the reduction of shrimp biomass in recent years. Hence to Protect the stocks the economic species and the sustainability of shrimp fishing, it is necessary to properly manage fisheries and determine the opening and closure fishing season Penaeus semisulcatus through conducting research surveys.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: DNA barcode is a short, standard well known sequence of cytochrome oxidase І gene. By using this DNA sequence can be realized that each animal, plant or fungus belongs to which species. in this research, samples were collected from imported cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and and 6 Persian Gulf and Oman Sea shrimp species which classified based on traditional systematically as: Penaeus semisulcatus, Fenneropenaeus merguiensis, Metapenaeus affinis, Parapenaeopsis Stylifera and Fenneropenaeus indicus. After examination of DNA barcode sequence, molecular and bioinformatics operations of each sequence in the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), phylogenetic analysis of each sample was determined and similarity of each sample with NCBI and CBOL database was checked and the closest species to each sample were specified. According to the results different samples of L. vannamei, . banded P.semisulcatus, F. merguiensis and F. indicus have more than 97% similarity to the same species of other countries. non banded P.semisulcatus had 80.07% similarity to banded P.semisulcatus, M. affinis samples had 90.3% similarity to Metapenaeus ensis and Parap. Stylifera had 93.44% similarity to Parapenaeopsis coromandelica in the CBOL. This funding confirmed the need for further investigation and possible announcement of new species.
    Keywords: Biology ; Information Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: Regarding to monitor of demersal resources in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, and also biomass and CPUA estimation of them, ten research cruises were carried out by using R/V Ferdows-1 equipped with bottom trawl, covering the area from 49º 00´ E in the west (north-west Persian Gulf) to 61º 25´ E in the east (borderline with Pakistan) from 2012 to 2014 The study area was stratified into 17 strata (A to Q) of which 10 strata (A to J) were in the Persian Gulf and 7 strata (K to Q) were in the Oman Sea, covering the depths of 10-50 m in the Persian Gulf and 10-100 m in the Oman Sea. A total of 316 stations were randomly selected and the biomass and CPUA were estimated by swept area method during this three years period, the strat A and B weren’t covered. The comparison between two regions indicated that the percentage of density of demersal fishes in the Persian Gulf during years 2012, 2013 and 2014 were 1.0, 1.4 and 1.6 times more than the Oman Sea and totally 50-60% of total biomass was found for the Persian Gulf. Also a comparison among 17 strata the highest biomass was found for K region (Sirik to Jask) in the Oman Sea in 2012 & 2014; and C region (Genaveh to Bordkhoon) in 2013 in the Persian Gulf. The same comparison was done for CPUA of commercial, non-commercial and total in both water bodies and it was found that in years 2012 to 2014 the region K (Sirik to Jask) in the Oman Sea and Stratum Q (Bersi to Gwatr) had the highest value of CPUA. On the contrary, the stratum M (Biahi to Galak estuary) showed the lowest value of biomass for both commercial and non-commercial fishes. With review the mean CPUA in different depth layers for years 2012, 2013 and 2014, it was concluded that in the Oman Sea with increasing the depth, the mean CPUA is decreased and the lowest CPUA belongs to depths of 30-50 m The comparison between commercial and non-commercial groups in both ecosystems, it concluded that the density of commercial species were higher than non-commercial ones; and for years 2009, 2010 and 2011 the commercial species consist of 63.4, 65.0 and 59.7 % of total biomass. In all years the Persian Gulf indicated higher values than the Oman Sea. The most abundant fishes were Rays, Ribbon fishes, Carangids, Grunts, Japanese threadfin bream, Lizardfish and Barracuda for both Persian Gulf and Oman Sea.
    Keywords: Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Regarding to monitor of demersal resources in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, and also biomass and CPUA estimation of them, a series of research cruises (5 cruises per year) were carried out by R/V Ferdows-1covering the area from 49 00 E in the west (Khoozestan provice) to 61 25 E in the east (Gwater) in a 5 years program form 2004 up to 2008 (no cruise in 2006). The study area was stratified into 17 strata (A to Q) of which 10 starta (A to J) were in the Persian Gulf and 7 strata (K to Q) were in the Oman Sea, covering the depths of 10-50m in the Persian Gulf and 10-100m in the Oman Sea. A total of 316 stations were randomly selected. The biomass and CPUA were estimated by Swept Area method. The comparison between two regions indicated that the percentage of density of demersal fishes in the Persian Gulf during years 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2008 were 3.3, 3.9, 2.3 and 2.4 times more than the Oman Sea and totally 70-80% of total biomass was calculated for the Persian Gulf. Also a comparison among 17 starta, the highest biomass was found for starta C & D in the Bushehr province waters. The amount of CPUA for both regions of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea was compared and it was concluded that in years 2004 and 2005, the mean CPUA in the Persian Gulf was partially higher than the Oman Sea with 1.06 & 1.20 times more; and on the contrary for the next two years this value was higher in the Oman Sea with 1.3 times more. The highest CPUA of demersal resources for the Oman Sea belonged to the strata K & O for years 2004, 2007 and 2008 and for year 2005 was for L and strata. It can be concluded that the north-west of Oman Sea has the best condition of biomass of commercial and non-commercial species and the O stratum will be in the second ranking. With review the mean CPUA in different depth-layers for years 2004, 2005, 2007 and 2008, it was concluded that with increasing the depth, the mean CPUA is decreased in which the CPUA values in depth-layer 10-20m for these years were 8.3, 3.0, 2.1 & 1.6 times more than depth-layer 50-100m. The comparison of mean CPUA for 10 strata of the Persian Gulf showed that in years 2004 and 2005, the mean CPUA of demersal fishes in the Hormuzgan province waters was higher than in Bushehr province waters (1.2 times more). In total, the highest maen CPUA belonged to F (Naiband to Mogham) and G (Mogham to Farour) in Hormuzgan waters. On the contrary, in years 2007 and 2008 this value in Bushehr waters was 1.3 times higher than western part of Hormuzgan waters with the highest value in D stratum(Boordekhoon to Dayyer). Also the comparison of mean CPUA for different depth-layers, it was found that the mean CPUA has ascending trend with increasing the depth, with the highest value in depth-laer of 30-50m in which contains the 55-68% of total biomass. The lowest biomass is found in depth-layers of 10-30m. Totally, the minimum CPUA and biomass for both commercial and non-commercial species belonged to a stratum located in Khouzestan province waters and it was shown the over-exploitation of resources in this area. The comparison between commercial and non-commercial groups in both ecosystems , it was concluded that the density of commercial species was higher than non-commercial ones , and in all years the Persian Gulf indicated higher values than the Oman Sea.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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