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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-03
    Description: In this study, excessive growth in submerged aquatic plants such as Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) and Pondweed (Potamogeton spp.), floating-leaved species such as Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and free-floating species such as Water Fern (Azolla filiculoides) in Anzali Lagoon was observed. We studied effects of excessive growth of these plants on water quality in Anzali Lagoon over the years 1998-2000. Assessed the possible effects of canopy formation and growing sites of these plants on habitat of aquatic animals was studied too. We showed that dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), pH and water temperature are associated with the growth and distribution of the aquatic plants, and established a significant relationship between vertical DO, pH and water temperature and location of canopy of these plants in the water column. Also, an increase in the amount of DO and pH in areas around the canopy and under it for submerged plants observed. This was not the case for floating-leaved and free-floating aquatic plants. The higher water turbulence in areas free from aquatic plants increased DO in lower layers of water column compared to areas covered with aquatic plants. We related the amount of DO and pH of water to growth form in aquatic plants that determines location of canopy formation in these plants. Contrary to the location of canopy and growing site factors, the extent of growth of these plants did not show an effect on DO and pH of water.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-04
    Description: We determined concentration of surfactants as mg/I of LAS using Sublation-Methylen Blue method in the south Caspian Sea coastal areas extending from Astara to Bandar-e-Tourkaman. The method was based on the American Standard Method for Examination of Water and Wastewater. We analyzed 53 water samples and found an average surfactant concentration of 0.019mgi1 with the minimum and maximum being 0.008mg/I and 0.038mgi1 respectively. We conclude that presently, surfactant concentration is not critical in the coastal areas. However, care must be exercised interpreting these results considering the synergistic effects between the surfactants and heavy metals and oil hydrocarbons.
    Keywords: Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: According to the importance of micro-algae in aquatic feed such as fish in this study have been investigated Preparation of useful algae powder or concentrate for breeding silver carp , their impact on the growth of silver carp , rate per unit area and estimate n economic Development. Different algal species were isolated from hydrothermal fish farms, then were purified and mass culture . The next step microalgae were dried and powdered by spray dryer and were examined the fish feeding on them. During this study, 6 species of chlorophyt( Scenedesmus obliquus, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Chlorella vulgaris, Pediastrum boryanum, Pandorina morum, Ankistrodesmus falcatus) ,3 species of cyanophyta ( Anabaena flosaquae, Oscillatoria agardhi and Spirulina platensis) and 1 species of Bacillariophta ( Cyclotella meneghiniana were isolated from.Green algae and Blue -green algae were cultured in Zaindr medium, diatoms were cultured in Zaindr medium but with water of Anzali logoon and also in F2 medium with artificial sea water and spirulina was cultured in Zarouk medium. Microalgae were cultures then concentrated.Then the impact was examined on fish silver carp 2 to 3 grams. The results showed that Cyclotella has a greater role in the growth of silver carp and Anabaena floes aquae and Spirulina platensis tend to growth less than cyclotella. Scenedesmus obliquus and Scenedesmus acuminatus were respectively next algae that showed the greatest impact on fish growth. Scenedesmus obliquus feed rate was greater than any other algae for Daphnia.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-08-01
    Description: Organic matter was determined in different parts of lagoon sediments during three years with annual average Of 137.32 ± 28.60 milligram in one gram dried sediment. Seasonal and horizontal fluctuations range was very clear and varied between maximum amount in emergent macrophytes region (in March, 250.00 mg/g. d.w.sed.) and minimum value in river systems (in September, 152.25 mg/g. d.w.sed.). This high organic matter is best reason for eutrophication process with regard to huge concentration of emerge, floating and submerge plants as a pollutant negative factor in spite of Caspian Sea's water level. Allochthonous matter from eleven important rivers and Authochthonous matter within lagoon during biological activities has main role in appearance of high eutrophy and it's need one scientific solution for this problem.
    Keywords: Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-08-22
    Description: The object of this survey is to enhance maturation of Astacus leptodactylus by temperature modification in order to have juveniles in the starting period of crayfish culture and to reach an acceptable market size at the end of one period culture as well. The research initiated from 27 November 2000 and lasted on 21 November 2001 at safidrood shilati research station. Crayfish brooders were catched by funnel trap from arass reservoir on late November 2000 and transferred to safidrood shilati research station , hold on concret pond as long as to observe eggs. Enhancing of the time of maturation conducted on one treatment and four replicate with raising temperature of the medium to 18-20°C. Four replicate used for control under natural temperature which ranged between 13.3 to 20.4°C with average 16.8°C. The dissolve oxygen concentration varied from 5.12 to 9.46 mg/l while Phof water were between 7.25 to 8.10 on mid April 2001. Egg development were observed on treatment which were one month earlier than control. Each crayfish produced 5 miniature with average individual weight of 50mg. The jovial of both treatment and control reared for seven days. Fed by dafni, chapped kilka and rice brain. To evaluate the relative growth between control and treatment, two soil pond with surface area of 100 m^2 were used for the culture. The duration of culture concerning to treatment was 210 days while for the control was 180 days.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: Phytoplankton groups are very important producers in the Anzali lagoon that have a significant role in the quality of water and the need to be constantly study their sequence and density. The survey was conducted in six workstations March 1389-Feb 2012. Samples were taken for a liter of water with plicae (P.V.C) and fixed with formalin to 4% ratio. Five ml of the sample after becoming homogeneous, was sequestration for 24 hours in the laboratory and identified and counted by invert microscope. Based on the results of this reviews 67 genus (22, 26, 9, 5, 1, 2, 1, and 1 genus respectively of the Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta branches, Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta Chrysophyta, Pyrrophyta, the Xanthophyta) were identified. The results showed that the phytoplankton density was the most in Sorkhankol and Komeh Aghajani stations with annual average of 24387483±5643414 and 20381250 ± 5488084 per liter respectively. The Bacillariophyta ( particularly Cyclotella) was dominant in all of stations but high density of blue green algae (Cyanophyta) in Komeh aghajani station from July to mid-October have caused the annual average of these phylum is more than Bacillariophyta. In General, the average density of phytoplankton was the highest in summer than other seasons and was the lowest value in the fall. The number of the genus identified in this survey is less than previous studies. Compare this survey with the last studies reviews shows that diversity is reduced in the current situation in the Anzali than previous studies. According to the statistical analysis of the Kruskal Wallis, the density of phytoplankton had no significant differences in the different months, stations and seasons (p〉0.05) but the phytoplankton phylums have significant differences (p〈0.05) together.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: Anzali wetland is one of the most important ecosystem in the southern Caspian Sea, acts as a special ecotone between different ecosystems; terrestrial, the Caspian Sea, brackish and fresh water environments. The hydro chemical and nutrients parameters were monthly studied in 10 locations of Anzali wetland for one year from May 2014. Trophic status index was calculated by different parameters including chlorophyll a, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and transparency. Results showed that the annual average of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and dissolved oxygen were 1.023±0.523, 0.113± 0.105 and 8.71 ± 2.63 mgL^-1 respectively. While no significant difference was observed in total nitrogen (P〉0.05), total phosphorus showed a significant difference (P〈0.05) among locations. Chlorophyll a varied between 0.6 to 330 (average 47.4 ± 65.0) µgL^-1. EC varied between 254 and 14250 µm and had a significant difference among locations (p〈0.05). The TN/TP was lower than 10 in Anzali wetland (except in western area) that show the limitation role of TP in eutrophication process. According to results while the western area and SiahKeshim are observed in eutrophic and super eutrophic status, the rest of regions are classified as hyper eutrophic status. Decrease of nutrient components from inlet rivers and to remove the aquatic plants in Anzali water bodies are recommended to control of eutrophication process in Anzali wetland.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Reservoirs are one of the most constructions for control and water supply for different usage that could have various social an economical effects. The Khandaghloo dam reservoir with area of 100 ha located in Mahneshan city of Zanjan province and related to Parichay river watershed. Khandaghloo reservoir is valuable water body that the aim of its establishment was supply of water for agriculture farms. The reservoir has been studied for responsible and sustainable fisheries exploitation proposes. Results showed that the reservoir categorizes as eutroph to super eutroph based on different indices.Also phosphorous is limiting factor of the water body.Totally 42 genera from 6 phyla including green-blue algae cyanophyta, diatoms (Bacillariophyta), green algae, chlorophyta, euglenophyta, pyrrophyta and xanthophyta has been identified and cyanophyta was the dominant group that comprise 74.3 % of phytoplankton population. The zooplankton of the reservoir comprised 4 phyla and 20 genera. 1 genera of the protozoa and rhizopoda, 1 genra of the ciliophora ,15 genera of rotatoria, 2 genera of cladocera has been identified in zooplankton communities. Tubificidae and chironomidae has been identified in all months of the survey. The mean total length of crayfish was 130.5±20.5 mm ( 636) and mean weight was measured as 69.4±34.1 g with maximum and minimum weight of 1.9 and 207.2 g respectively .Total biomass of crayfish in Khandaghloo reservoir estimated as 3.4 tones with a range of 1.1–5.7 tones. But it is recommended not to harvest for at least two year due to high mortality of the populations.The fishes of the reservoir comprised common carp Chinese carp (silver carp, big head and grass carp) (released), Caspian kutum (accidentally released by fishery sector) and some endemic species as Siamahii. The catch of the reservoir fluctuated between 8 to 26 tones during 2000-2010.The fish production of Khandaghloo reservoir ranged from 167 to 324 kg/ha based on different methods that by consideration of 100 ha area of the reservoir, the total production of fish fluctuated between 16.7 to 32.4 tones. The fingerling restocking of Chinese carp in Khandaghloo reservoir with density of 1500 fingerling/ha recommended as 68% of phytoplanktonivorous fish (silver carp) ,12% zooplanktonivorous fish (big head), 6.6% of Crass carp and 10% of benthophagous fish (common carp).
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-12
    Description: The surface layer of sediments in the east of the Anzali Lagoon was surveyed for heavy metal contamination during the year 2004 at the National Inland Water Aquaculture Institute. Samples were obtained by sediment sampler (Eckman Grab) from Pirbazar River, Pasikhan and Selkeh. The samples were dried and treated by wet digestion (HN0_3, H_2SO_4, HClO_4) under open reflux condition. Concentration of Pb, Fe, Cu and Cd were 7.92, 0.2775%, 25.8 and 1.645 kg/g dry weight respectively. The Fe and Cu have the highest concentration. We found that in the study area, Pirbazar was the most contaminated with the selected heavy metals.
    Keywords: Environment ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-08
    Description: Rutilus frisii kutum is one of the important fish of Caspian Sea which has significant economical role in the region .The objective of this project is a comparative study on traditional culture of fishes versus slurry. This survey were conducted on nine pound of 1.7 hec triplicate with their treatment with stocking densities of 1.7 million fish larva at Dr yousefpoor center (Affiliated of Shahid Beheshti culture and propagation) at Siakal village , 32 km far from Rasht city in North of Iran, the first treatment considered as control which practice traditionally (using concentrated food plus grinded kilka fish) .In the second treatment for 13 days the pound supplied only by slurry then followed by concentrated fish food only .The tired treatment started with slurry for 13 days and followed by slurry plus concentrated food. The physical and chemical parameters of water, plankton, biometry of fish, growth indices such as daily weight growth (DWG), daily length growth (DLG) as well as specific ratio (SGR) were monitored weekly. The result indicate that net fish production was 1.7 to 2 times higher in slurry than traditional treatment also the survival rate were 1.7 times higher in slurry treatment . The treatment of slurry follow by addition of concentrated food plus slurry showed higher yield camper to others. Slurry with several active substances is more effective and can promote the growth of zooplanktons which is the food of larval stage of rutilus frisi kutum. In second phase of this project the effect of slurry was surveyed on Chinese carp. This experiment was conducted in triplicate with two treatment (one treatment is control which use cow manure plus chemical fertilizer and second treatment was conducted with slurry) and stocked with 2375 N/hec (Silver carp 60%, Big head 15%, common carp 17% and grass carp 8%) at June. In this survey common carp and grass carp were feed with concentrate food and fresh grasses respectively. Chemical factors were measured once for each two week and density of plankton was determined when it was necessarily. Nutritional content of phosphorous, nitrogen, calcium, potassium and magnesium after anaerobic fermentation as well as protein and lipid content with 1.4and 1.9 times respectively were higher in slurry treatment than control. The results showed that survival rate and yield were higher in slurry than control. The increasing percent of yield were 13.5, 2.6, 18.4 and 85.3 in Silver carp, Big head, common carp and grass carp respectively. The survival rate of grass carp was twice higher in slurry treatment than control. Zooplankton abundant in slurry pounds was more but blue- green algae density was less than control. Protein and lipid analysis reviled no significant difference between control and slurry. In general the result indicate that the slurry with higher nutritional content is more effective on the survival and growth rate of fishes and also is more efficient in proliferation of plankton in particular zooplankton.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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