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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 172-184 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Risk assessment, based on quantitative maximum credible accident analysis (MCAA), has been conducted for a chloralkali industry situated in the midst of densely populated coastal villages. The study has made use of a software package MAXimum CREDible accident analysis version 2 (henceforth referred to as MAXCRED-II) recently developed by us.Among the six different most credible accident scenarios developed using MAXCRED-II, the one envisaging ‘confined vapor cloud explosion followed by fire ball’ (in the hydrogen storage vessel) comes out to be the worst in terms of the highest propensity for damage (overpressure, missile, heat load). It also has the potential of causing domino effect (chain of accidents). The scenario of causing domino effect (chain of accidents). The scenario of ‘continuous release of chlorine from storage vessel’ is the second most disastrous, in terms of lethal toxic load likely over a large distance (3252 meters). In summary, the study reveals that given the masses of materials stored, and the conditions in which they are stored, there is a live risk of accidents in the storage vessels that would have far-reaching consequences. The industry thus poses a great risk to large areas of surrounding including densely populated villages (particularly Chinnakalapet and Kalapet) and the campuses of Pondicherry University and Pondicherry Engineering College.This paper demonstrates the utilizability of MAXCRED-II and also focuses attention on the need to bestow greater effort towards risk assessment. It is hoped that these studies will make plant managers conscious of the serious consequences that can result from accidents in their vulnerable units. Appreciation of the risk, we hope, will prompt them to develop accident prevention strategies and to put in position emergency preparedness plans to cushion the adverse impacts if accidents do occur.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 157-170 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Risk analysis in chemical process industries is an elaborate exercise involving several steps from preliminary hazard identification to development of credible accident scenarios, to preparation of strategies for prevention or control of damage.All this requires substantial inputs of time and money. In order to get an approximate yet workable assessment of risk at much lesser costs, indices have been developed which link typical findings of elaborate risk analysis to scales of risk. The scales, in turn, provide workable measures of hazards/risks/safety.In the past, indices have been reported for swift risk assessment - the noteworthy among them include Dow fire and explosion index, Mond fire, explosion and toxicity index, IFAL index, and mortality index. A few rapid ranking techniques have also been proposed.This paper presents a new system of methodologies for Hazard Identification and Ranking (HIRA). The system consists of two indices: one for fire and explosion hazards and another for the hazard due to likely release of toxic chemical. The magnitudes of these indices indicate the severity of the likely accident; in terms of the size of the impacted area.HIRA has been applied to a typical chemical process industry - a sulfolane plant - and its performance has been compared with that of the Dow's and the Mond's indices. The study reveals that HIRA is more sensitive and accurate than the other indices.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 107-123 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the risk assessment parlance, especially with reference to chemical process industries, the term “domino effect” is used to denote “chain of accidents,” or situations when a fire/explosion/missile/toxic load generated by an accident in one unit in an industry causes secondary and higher order accidents in other units. The multi-accident catastrophe which occurred in a refinery at Vishakhapatnam, India, on September 14, 1997, claiming 60 lives and causing damages to property worth over Rs 600 million, is the most recent example of the damage potential of domino effect.But, even as the domino effect has been documented since 1947, very little attention has been paid towards modeling this phenomena. In this paper we have provided a conceptual framework based on sets of appropriate models to forecast domino effects, and assess their likely magnitudes and adverse impacts, while conducting risk assessment in a chemical process industry. The utilizability of the framework has been illustrated with a case study.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental monitoring and assessment 64 (2000), S. 457-475 
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: greenbelt ; gaseous pollution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The article draws attention towards the importance ofgreenbelts in attenuating gaseous pollutants andpresents the meteorological, physico-chemical,biological, and horticultural dimensions associatedwith effective greenbelt design.We have presented the gist of a system ofmethodologies, developed by us, for greenbelt design. A case study demonstrating the applicability of thesystem has been presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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