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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: AFLP marker ; Lactuca ; Lettuce ; Phylogenetic analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract AFLP markers were evaluated for determining the phylogenetic relationships Lactuca spp. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 44 morphologically diverse lines of cultivated L. sativa and 13 accessions of the wild species L. serriola, L. saligna, L. virosa, L. perennis, and L. indica. The same genotypes were analyzed as in a previous study that had utilized RFLP markers. The phenetic tree based on AFLP data was consistent with known taxonomic relationships and similar to a tree developed with RFLP data. The genetic distance matrices derived from AFLP and RFLP data were compared using least squares regression analysis and, for the cultivar data, by principal component analysis. There was also a positive linear relationship between distance estimates based on AFLP data and kinship coefficients calculated from pedigree data. AFLPs represent reliable PCR-based markers for studies of genetic relationships at a variety of taxonomic levels.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words AFLP marker  ;  Lactuca  ;  Lettuce  ; Phylogenetic analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract AFLP markers were evaluated for determining the phylogenetic relationships Lactuca spp. Genetic distances based on AFLP data were estimated for 44 morphologically diverse lines of cultivated L. sativa and 13 accessions of the wild species L. serriola, L. saligna, L. virosa, L. perennis, and L. indica. The same genotypes were analyzed as in a previous study that had utilized RFLP markers. The phenetic tree based on AFLP data was consistent with known taxonomic relationships and similar to a tree developed with RFLP data. The genetic distance matrices derived from AFLP and RFLP data were compared using least squares regression analysis and, for the cultivar data, by principal component analysis. There was also a positive linear relationship between distance estimates based on AFLP data and kinship coefficients calculated from pedigree data. AFLPs represent reliable PCR-based markers for studies of genetic relationships at a variety of taxonomic levels.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 71 (1985), S. 292-299 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Breeding system ; Population subdivision ; Multilocus estimator ; Inbreeding ; Selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The breeding systems of seven Limanthes (Limanthaceae) populations, including one “inbreeding” and three “outbreeding” taxa, were quantified using a multilocus outcrossing rate estimator (tm) and autofertility estimates. Along with the assays of heterozygosity levels, these data were used to separate components of “effective” outcrossing in terms of Wright's equilibrium inbreeding coefficient (Fe) and adult (FA) and zygotic (FZ) fixation indices. The patchy distribution of alleles as a potential source of “substructure inbreeding” was tested from the allelic frequencies mapped along a linear transect. Evidence for consanguineous matings in restricted neighborhoods and for selection at two different life cycle stages, and the efficiency of the protandrous breeding system were noted and discussed. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing are useful for their greater precision and unbiased nature while single locus estimates can help in detecting the effects of selection and population substructure. The data generally support the “heterozygosity paradox” noted by Brown (1979) but further suggest that the paradox may often result from a lack of precision of outcrossing estimates and from overlooking the stages of the life cycle being sampled.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Gynodioecy ; Natural hybridization ; Gene-cytoplasmic control ; Genetic variation ; Anther color polymorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Evidence for hybrid origin of gene-cytoplasmic gynodioecy in Limnanthes douglasii is presented in terms of the parapatric distributions of putative parental taxa and the increased levels of genetic variation in gynodioecious populations. Attempts to produce gynodioecy through artificial hybridization between different accessions apparently failed due to the limited number of parental combinations used in making hybrids. Further studies are proposed on the hybrid origin model and on selective forces determining the fate of gynodioecy with its contributions to higher levels of hybridity and genetic variation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Polymorphism ; Restriction endonuclease ; Mapping ; Lettuce ; Lactuca sativa ; Resistance gene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary As a first step in developing a detailed genetic map of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), 156 cDNA and 123 genomic DNA clones of lettuce were compared for their efficiency to detect restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) between four lines of lettuce. Polymorphism was detected 2.5 times more frequently with cDNA probes than random genomic probes. Less polymorphism was detected with cDNA clones homologous to single copy than with cDNA clones homologous to multiple copy DNA sequences. A lower percentage of polymorphism was detected with genomic DNA clones homologous to repetitive sequences than with other types of probes. Digests with each of nine restriction endonucleases were compared; increased polymorphism was not correlated with the presence of a CpG dimer in the recognition sequence of the restriction endonuclease. Digests with enzymes recognizing four base pairs, however, displayed RFLPs less frequently. The six pairwise comparisons of the four lettuce lines showed different frequencies of polymorphism which only approximately corresponded to genetic distances obtained from previous isozyme analyses.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Disease resistance ; Lettuce ; Downy mildew ; Molecular markers ; Genetic mapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The second largest cluster of resistance genes in lettuce contains at least two downy mildew resistance specificities, Dm5/8 and Dm10, as well as Tu, providing resistance against turnip mosaic virus, and plr, a recessive gene conferring resistance against Plasmopara lactucae-radicis, a root infecting downy mildew. In the present paper four additional genetic markers have been added to this cluster, three RAPD markers and one RFLP marker, CL1795. CL1795 is a member of a multigene family related to triose phosphate isomerase; other members of this family map to the other two major clusters of resistance genes in lettuce. Seven RAPD markers in the region were converted into sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs) and used in the further analysis of the region and the mapping of Dm10. Three different segregating populations were used to map the four resistance genes relative to molecular markers. There were no significant differences in gene order or rate of recombination between the three crosses. This cluster of resistance genes spans 6.4 cM, with Dm10 1.2 cM from Dm8. Marker analysis of 20 cultivars confirmed multiple origins for Dm5/8 specificity. Two different Lactuca serriola origins for the Du5/8 specificity had previously been described and originally designated as either Dm5 or Dm8. Some ancient cultivars also had the same specificity. Previously, due to lack of recombination in genetic analyses and the same resistance specificities, it was assumed that Dm5 and Dm8 were determined by the same gene. However, molecular marker analysis clearly identified genotypes characteristic of each source. Therefore, Dm5/8 specificity is either ancient and widespread in L. serriola and some L. sativa, or else has arisen on multiple occasions as alleles at the same locus or at linked loci.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Sex chromosome markers ; Y-chromosome ; Angiosperms ; Silene latifolia ; Melandrium album
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In order to obtain markers for the Y chromosome ofSilene latifolia, we pooled equal weights of leaf tissue from 18 female siblings into one sample and repeated the process with 18 male siblings. Pooling was intended to provide a common genetic background for each sample, leaving the absence or presence of the Y chromosome as the primary difference between the two samples. DNA was extracted from each sample and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with arbitrary 10 bp primers. Four of 60 primers used gave an amplification with the male DNA not found among those from the female DNA. Each of these was subsequently shown to provide a reliable marker for the Y chromosome.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 383 (1996), S. 398-399 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR á€" Canopy trees, the main structural elements of tropical rain forests, typically occur at the density of one adult or less per hectare1'3. Because these trees are strongly outcrossed4"6, their populations are expected to cover large areas of hundreds of square kilometres. ...
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