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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: NOAA-7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Vegetation Indices (GVI) were used during the 1986 rainy season (June-September) over Senegal to monitor rainfall. The satellite data were used in conjunction with ground-based measurements so as to derive empirical relationships between rainfall and GVI. The regression obtained was then used to map the total rainfall corresponding to the growing season, yielding good results. Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) derived from High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data were also compared with actual evapotranspiration (ET) data and proved to be closely correlated with it with a time lapse of 20 days.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 10; 847-854
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A radiative-transfer model for simulating microwave brightness temperatures over land surfaces is described. The model takes into account sensor viewing conditions (spacecraft altitude, viewing angle, frequency, and polarization) and atmospheric parameters over a soil surface characterized by its moisture, roughness, and temperature and covered with a layer of vegetation characterized by its temperature, water content, single scattering albedo, structure, and percent coverage. In order to reduce the influence of atmospheric and surface temperature effects, the brightness temperatures are expressed as polarization ratios that depend primarily on the soil moisture and roughness, canopy water content, and percentage of cover. The sensitivity of the polarization ratio to these parameters is investigated. Simulation of the temporal evolution of the microwave signal over semiarid areas in the African Sahel is presented and compared to actual satellite data from the SMMR instrument on Nimbus-7.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); 28; 384-393
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite has been proposed to provide global measurements of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolutions, respectively. SMAP would also provide a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution. This product and the supporting brightness temperature observations are common to both SMAP and European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. As a result, there are opportunities for synergies between the two missions. These include exploiting the data for calibration and validation and establishing longer term L-band brightness temperature and derived soil moisture products. In this investigation we will be using SMOS brightness temperature, ancillary data, and soil moisture products to develop and evaluate a candidate SMAP L2 passive soil moisture retrieval algorithm. This work will begin with evaluations based on the SMOS product grids and ancillary data sets and transition to those that will be used by SMAP. An important step in this analysis is reprocessing the multiple incidence angle observations provided by SMOS to a global brightness temperature product that simulates the constant 40 degree incidence angle observations that SMAP will provide. The reprocessed brightness temperature data provide a basis for evaluating different SMAP algorithm alternatives. Several algorithms are being considered for the SMAP radiometer-only soil moisture retrieval. In this first phase, we utilized only the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA), which is based on the radiative transfer equation and uses the channel that is most sensitive to soil moisture (H-pol). Brightness temperature is corrected sequentially for the effects of temperature, vegetation, roughness (dynamic ancillary data sets) and soil texture (static ancillary data set). European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) estimates of soil temperature for the top layer (as provided as part of the SMOS ancillary data) were used to correct for surface temperature effects and to derive microwave emissivity. ECMWF data were also used for precipitation forecasts, presence of snow, and frozen ground. Vegetation options are described below. One year of soil moisture observations from a set of four watersheds in the U.S. were used to evaluate four different retrieval methodologies: (1) SMOS soil moisture estimates (version 400), (2) SeA soil moisture estimates using the SMOS/SMAP data with SMOS estimated vegetation optical depth, which is part of the SMOS level 2 product, (3) SeA soil moisture estimates using the SMOS/SMAP data and the MODIS-based vegetation climatology data, and (4) SeA soil moisture estimates using the SMOS/SMAP data and actual MODIS observations. The use of SMOS real-world global microwave observations and the analyses described here will help in the development and selection of different land surface parameters and ancillary observations needed for the SMAP soil moisture algorithms. These investigations will greatly improve the quality and reliability of this SMAP product at launch.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC.ABS.4502.2011 , Workshop on First Results from the SMOS Mission; Sep 27, 2011 - Sep 29, 2011; Arles; France
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The spectral window at L-band (1.413 GHz) is important for passive remote sensing of surface parameters such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity that are needed to understand the hydrological cycle and ocean circulation. Radiation from celestial (mostly galactic) sources is strong in this window and an accurate accounting for this background radiation is often needed for calibration. Modem radio astronomy measurements in this spectral window have been converted into a brightness temperature map of the celestial sky at L-band suitable for use in correcting passive measurements. This paper presents a comparison of the background radiation predicted by this map with measurements made with several modem L-band remote sensing radiometers. The agreement validates the map and the procedure for locating the source of down-welling radiation.
    Keywords: Acoustics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission and the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) missions provide brightness temperature and soil moisture estimates every 2-3 days. SMAP brightness temperature observations were compared with SMOS observations at 40o incidence angle. The brightness temperatures from the two missions are not consistent. SMAP observations show a warmer TB bias (about 1.27 K: V pol and 0.62 K: H pol) as compared to SMOS. SMAP and SMOS missions use different retrieval algorithms and ancillary datasets which result in further inconsistencies between their soil moisture products. The reprocessed constant-angle SMOS brightness temperatures were used in the SMAP soil moisture retrieval algorithm to develop a consistent multi-satellite product. The integrated product has an increased global revisit frequency (1 day) and period of record that is unattainable by either one of the satellites alone. Results from the development and validation of the integrated soil moisture product will be presented.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN59987 , IGARSS 2018; Jul 22, 2018 - Jul 27, 2018; Valencia; Spain
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Mathematical model approximates microwave radiation emitted by land surfaces traveling to microwave radiometer in outer space. Applied to measurements made by Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR). Developed for interpretation of microwave imagery of Earth to obtain distributions of various chemical, physical, and biological characteristics across its surface. Intended primarily for use in mapping moisture content of soil and fraction of Earth covered by vegetation. Advanced Very-High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), provides additional information on vegetative cover, thereby making possible retrieval of soil-moisture values from SMMR measurements. Possible to monitor changes of land surface during intervals of 5 to 10 years, providing significant data for mathematical models of evolution of climate.
    Keywords: PHYSICAL SCIENCES
    Type: NPO-17739 , NASA Tech Briefs (ISSN 0145-319X); 15; 5; P. 34
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: In this paper we review the use of satellite-based remote sensing in combination with in situ data to inform Earth surface modelling. This involves verification and optimization methods that can handle both random and systematic errors and result in effective model improvement for both surface monitoring and prediction applications. The reasons for diverse remote sensing data and products include (i) their complementary areal and temporal coverage, (ii) their diverse and covariant information content, and (iii) their ability to complement in situ observations, which are often sparse and only locally representative. To improve our understanding of the complex behavior of the Earth system at the surface and sub-surface, we need large volumes of data from high-resolution modelling and remote sensing, since the Earth surface exhibits a high degree of heterogeneity and discontinuities in space and time. The spatial and temporal variability of the biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and anthroposphere calls for an increased use of Earth observation (EO) data attaining volumes previously considered prohibitive. We review data availability and discuss recent examples where satellite remote sensing is used to infer observable surface quantities directly or indirectly, with particular emphasis on key parameters necessary for weather and climate prediction. Coordinated high-resolution remote-sensing and modelling/assimilation capabilities for the Earth surface are required to support an international application-focused effort.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN63897 , Remote Sensing (e-ISSN 2072-4292); 10; 12; 2038
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: For more than six years, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has provided multi angular and full-polarization brightness temperature (TB) measurements at L-band. Geophysical products such as soil moisture (SM) and vegetation optical depth at nadir (tau(sub nad)) are retrieved by an operational algorithm using TB observations at different angles of incidence and polarizations. However, the quality of the retrievals depends on several surface effects, such as vegetation, soil roughness and texture, etc. In the microwave forward emission model used in the retrievals (L-band Microwave Emission Model, L-MEB),soil roughness is modeled with a semi-empirical equation using four main parameters (Q(sub r), H(sub r), N(sub rp), with p = H or V polarizations). At present, these parameters are calibrated with data provided by airborne studies and in situ measurements made at a local scale that is not necessarily representative of the large SMOS footprints (43 km on average) at global scale. In this study, we evaluate the impact of the calibrated values of N(sub rp) and H(sub r) on the SM and tau(sub nad) retrievals based on SMOS TB measurements (SMOS Level 3 product) over the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) network located in North America over five years (2011-2015). In this study, Qr was set equal to zero and we assumed that N(sub rH)= N(sub rV). The retrievals were performed by varying N(sub rp) from 1 to 2 by steps of 1 and H(sub r) from 0 to 0.6 by steps of 0.1. At satellite scale, the results show that combining vegetation and roughness effects in a single parameter provides the best results in terms of soil moisture retrievals, as evaluated against the in situ SM data. Even though our retrieval approach was very simplified, as we did not account for pixel heterogeneity, the accuracy we obtained in the SM retrievals was almost systematically better than those of the Level 3 product. Improved results were also obtained in terms of optical depth retrievals. These new results may have key consequences in terms of calibration of roughness effects within the algorithms of the SMOS (ESA) and the SMAP (NASA) space missions.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN39645 , International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (ISSN 0303-2434); 55; 73-86
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Radiation from the celestial sky in the spectral window at 1.413 GHz is strong and an accurate accounting of this background radiation is needed for calibration and retrieval algorithms. Modern radio astronomy measurements in this window have been converted into a brightness temperature map of the celestial sky at L-band suitable for such applications. This paper presents a comparison of the background predicted by this map with the measurements of several modern L-band remote sensing radiometer Keywords-Galactic background, microwave radiometry; remote sensing;
    Keywords: Space Radiation
    Type: IGARSS 2004; Sep 20, 2004 - Sep 24, 2004; Anchorage, AK; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015. The observatory was developed to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every two to three days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. After an irrecoverable hardware failure of the radar on July 7, 2015, the radiometer-only soil moisture product became the only operational Level 2 soil moisture product for SMAP. The product provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36 kilometer Earth-fixed grid produced using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. Within months after the commissioning of the SMAP radiometer, the product was assessed to have attained preliminary (beta) science quality, and data were released to the public for evaluation in September 2015. The product is available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. This paper provides a summary of the Level 2 Passive Soil Moisture Product (L2_SM_P) and its validation against in situ ground measurements collected from different data sources. Initial in situ comparisons conducted between March 31, 2015 and October 26, 2015, at a limited number of core validation sites (CVSs) and several hundred sparse network points, indicate that the V-pol Single Channel Algorithm (SCA-V) currently delivers the best performance among algorithms considered for L2_SM_P, based on several metrics. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrievals averaged over the CVSs was 0.038 cubic meter per cubic meter unbiased root-mean-square difference (ubRMSD), which approaches the SMAP mission requirement of 0.040 cubic meter per cubic meter.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN39612 , IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (e-ISSN 1558-0644); 54; 8; 4994-5007
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