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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In an attempt to study the structure and the properties of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium perpendicular to the plane of disk galaxies researchers obtained H alpha images and spectra of NGC 891. Perhaps the most remarkable property of the H alpha emission line in NGC 891 is its extension out of the plane of the galaxy: researchers are able to measure the H alpha line out to more than 30 seconds (1.4 kpc) from the midplane. This means that the ionized hydrogen extends at least four times higher than the neutral hydrogen layer. An anomalously large scale-height for the ionized gas of approx. equals 1 kpc is also found in the Milky Way. The echelle spectra show a changing ratio of NII to H alpha. This excludes the possibility that the large scaleheight of the emission is due to scattering of disk emission by dust high above the plane. The z-extent of the H alpha emission is confirmed by the imaging result. The large z-extent of the ionized gas is confined to the inner half of the visible disk. In this inner region the H alpha distribution also shows a filamentary structure of the diffuse ionized medium. These filaments, sticking out of the plane, originate in HII regions in the plane. The H alpha image also shows a large scale asymmetry if the NE and SW parts of the disk are compared. The NE part is more prominent and extended in H alpha. The same asymmetry is also seen in the radio continuum distribution. This correlation between the diffuse ionized medium and the distribution of relativistic electrons is one example of a relation between star formation processes in the disk and the various components of the halo. Thermal filaments or spurs which are related to HII regions are also known in the Galaxy. These filamentary structures perpendicular to the galactic planes may represent the chimneys which result in the supernova dominated model of the Interstellar Medium by Norman and Ikeuchi (1989).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies: Summaries of Contributed Papers; p 172-173
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: NGC 253 is a prototypical moderate nuclear starburst galaxy. It is a barred SBc spiral galaxy at a distance of approximately 3 Mpc and can be studied on scales down to 15 pc in the optical and near IR. It is a bright IRAS source with a flux of 1000 Jy at 60 microns and a FIR luminosity of 3 x 10(exp 10) solar luminosity. It has a strong Br(gamma) emission line, a signature of ongoing massive star formation and deep CO absorption bands, which are indicative of the dominance of red supergiants in the near IR. It contains a population of compact radio sources, similar to those seen in M82. Optical spectra show that the nucleus is heavily reddened, with a Balmer decrement of approximately 30. NGC 253 possesses a 'superwind,' seen both in x-ray emission and in optical line emission. Nuclear ejection was first suggested to explain the kinematics of the nuclear region. We have obtained J, H, and K images of the entire galaxy at 1.3 arcsec/pixel (18 pc/pixel) using the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) on the KPNO 1.3 m. We have constructed a mosaic of 180 s exposures which traces the galaxy over much of its optical extent. The data were shifted, rotated, magnified, and calibrated following normal practice.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment; p 383-385
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The usability of the general aviation synthesis program (GASP) was enhanced by the development of separate computer subroutines which can be added as a package to this assembly of computerized design methods or used as a separate subroutine program to compute the dynamic longitudinal, lateral-directional stability characteristics for a given airplane. Currently available analysis methods were evaluated to ascertain those most appropriate for the design functions which the GASP computerized design program performs. Methods for providing proper constraint and/or analysis functions for GASP were developed as well as the appropriate subroutines.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: KU-FRL-313-5 , NASA-CR-157210 , SR-4
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: A method has been proposed to utilize the well-known Compton scattering process as a tool to measure the centroid energy of a high energy electron beam at the 0.01% level. It is suggested to use the Compton scattering of an infrared laser off the electron beam, and then to measure the energy of the scattered gamma-rays very precisely using solid-state detectors. The technique proposed is applicable for electron beams with energies from 200 MeV to 16 GeV using presently available lasers. This technique was judged to be the most viable of all those proposed for beam energy measurements at the nearby Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Plans for a prototype test of the technique are underway, where the main issues are the possible photon backgrounds associated with an electron accelerator and the electron and laser beam stabilities and diagnostics. The bulk of my ASEE summer research has been spent utilizing the expertise of the staff at the Aerospace Electronics Systems Division at LaRC to assist in the design of the test. Investigations were made regarding window and mirror transmission and radiation damage issues, remote movement of elements in ultra-high vacuum conditions, etc. The prototype test of the proposed laser backscattering method is planned for this December.
    Keywords: Nuclear and High-Energy Physics
    Type: The 1995 NASA-ODU American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program; 84; NASA-CR-198210
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The rise of atmospheric CO2, largely attributable to human activity through fossil fuel emissions and land-use change, has been dampened by carbon uptake by the ocean and terrestrial biosphere. We outline the consequences of this carbon uptake as direct and indirect effects on terrestrial and oceanic systems and processes for different regions of North America and the globe. We assess the capacity of these systems to continue to act as carbon sinks. Rising CO2 has decreased seawater pH; this process of ocean acidification has impacted some marine species and altered fundamental ecosystem processes with further effects likely. In terrestrial ecosystems, increased atmospheric CO2 causes enhanced photosynthesis, net primary production, and increased water-use efficiency. Rising CO2 may change vegetation composition and carbon storage, and widespread increases in water use efficiency likely influence terrestrial hydrology and biogeochemical cycling. Consequences for human populations include changes to ecosystem services including cultural activities surrounding land use, agricultural or harvesting practices. Commercial fish stocks have been impacted and crop production yields have been changed as a result of rising CO2. Ocean and terrestrial effects are contingent on, and feedback to, global climate change. Warming and modified precipitation regimes impact a variety of ecosystem processes, and the combination of climate change and rising CO2 contributes considerable uncertainty to forecasting carbon sink capacity in the ocean and on land. Disturbance regime (fire and insects) are modified with increased temperatures. Fire frequency and intensity increase, and insect lifecycles are disrupted as temperatures move out of historical norms. Changes in disturbance patterns modulate the effects of rising CO2 depending on ecosystem type, disturbance frequency, and magnitude of events. We discuss management strategies designed to limit the rise of atmospheric CO2 and reduce uncertainty in forecasts of decadal and centennial feedbacks of rising atmospheric CO2 on carbon storage.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN38157 , AGU Fall Meeting 2016; 12-16 Dec. 2016; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: As earth system models (ESMs) become increasingly complex, there is a growing need for comprehensive and multi-faceted evaluation of model projections. To advance understanding of terrestrial biogeochemical processes and their interactions with hydrology and climate under conditions of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, new analysis methods are required that use observations to constrain model predictions, inform model development, and identify needed measurements and field experiments. Better representations of biogeochemistryclimate feedbacks and ecosystem processes in these models are essential for reducing the acknowledged substantial uncertainties in 21st century climate change projections.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: DOE/SC-0186 , GSFC-E-DAA-TN43734 , 2016 International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) Workshop; 16-18 May 2016; Washington, DC; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: The goal of this research project is to create a prototype high power CW source of ultraviolet (UV) photons for photon-electron scattering at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Hall B. The facility will use optical resonant cavities to produce a high photon flux. The technical approach will be to frequency-double the 514.5 mn light from an Argon-Ion Laser to create 0.1 to 1.0 watt in the UV. The produced UV power will be stored in a resonant cavity to generate an high intracavity UV power of 102 to 103 watts. The specific aim of this project is to first design and construct the low-Q doubling cavity and lock it to the Argon-Ion wavelength. Secondly, the existing 514.5 nm high-Q build-up cavity and its locking electronics will be modified to create high intracavity UV power. The entire system will then be characterized and evaluated for possible beam line use.
    Keywords: Lasers and Masers
    Type: 98URC133 , NASA University Research Centers Technical Advances in Aeronautics, Space Sciences and Technology, Earth Systems Sciences, Global Hydrology, and Education; 2 and 3; 745-750; NONP-NASA-CD-1999011585
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-10-17
    Description: Rising carbon dioxide (CO2) has decreased seawater pH at long-term observing stations around the world, including in the open ocean north of Oahu, Hawaii, near Alaska's Aleutian Islands, the Gulf of Maine shore, and on Gray's Reef in the southeastern United States. This ocean acidification process has already affected some marine species and altered fundamental ecosystem processes, and further effects are likely. While atmospheric CO rises at approximately the same rate all over the globe, its non-climate effects on land vary depending on climate and dominant species. In terrestrial ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO concentrations are expected to increase plant photosynthesis, growth, and water-use efficiency, though these effects are reduced when nutrients, drought or other factors limit plant growth. Rising CO would likely change carbon storage and influence terrestrial hydrology and biogeochemical cycling, but concomitant effects on vegetation composition and nutrient feedbacks are challenging to predict, making decadal forecasts uncertain. Consequences of rising atmospheric CO are expected to include difficult-to-predict changes in the ecosystem services that terrestrial and ocean systems provide to humans. For instance, ocean acidification resulting from rising CO has decreased the supply of larvae that sustains commercial shellfish production in the northwestern United States. In addition, CO fertilization (increases) plus warming (decreases) are changing terrestrial crop yields. Continued persistence of uptake of carbon by the land and ocean is uncertain. Climate and environmental change create complex feedbacks to the carbon cycle and it is not clear how feedbacks modulate future effects of rising CO on carbon sinks. These are several mechanisms that could reduce future sink capacity.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN65056 , American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting 2018; Dec 10, 2018 - Dec 14, 2018; Washington, D. C. ; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-12-01
    Description: Complex processes related to biotic and abiotic forces can impose limitations to assembly and composition of plant communities. Quantifying the effects of these constraints on plant functional traits across environmental gradients, and among communities, remains challenging. We define ecological constraint ( C i ) as the combined, limiting effect of biotic interactions and environmental filtering on trait expression (i.e., the mean value and range of functional traits). Here, we propose a set of novel parameters to quantify this constraint by extending the trait-gradient analysis (TGA) methodology. The key parameter is ecological constraint, which is dimensionless and can be measured at various scales, for example, on population and community levels. It facilitates comparing the effects of ecological constraints on trait expressions across environmental gradients, as well as within and among communities. We illustrate the implementation of the proposed parameters using the bark thickness of 14 woody species along an aridity gradient on granite outcrops in southwestern Australia. We found a positive correlation between increasing environmental stress and strength of ecological constraint on bark thickness expression. Also, plants from more stressful habitats (shrublands on shallow soils and in sun-exposed locations) displayed higher ecological constraint for bark thickness than plants in more benign habitats (woodlands on deep soils and in sheltered locations). The relative ease of calculation and dimensionless nature of C i allow it to be readily implemented at various scales and make it widely applicable. It therefore has the potential to advance the mechanistic understanding of the ecological processes shaping trait expression. Some future applications of the new parameters could be investigating the patterns of ecological constraints (1) among communities from different regions, (2) on different traits across similar environmental gradients, and (3) for the same trait across different gradient types. Biotic and abiotic forces pose constraints on trait expression. We developed a method based on trait-gradient analyses that facilitates the quantification of these ecological constraints. We implemented the new methodology using bark thickness of woody species in Southwestern Australia granite outcrops, finding positive correlation between increasing aridity and strength of ecological constraints.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Author(s): K. Kovařík, A. Kusina, T. Ježo, D. B. Clark, C. Keppel, F. Lyonnet, J. G. Morfín, F. I. Olness, J. F. Owens, I. Schienbein, and J. Y. Yu We present the new nCTEQ15 set of nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs) with uncertainties. This fit extends the CTEQ proton PDFs to include the nuclear dependence using data on nuclei all the way up to Pb 208 . The uncertainties are determined using the Hessian method with an optimal rescaling… [Phys. Rev. D 93, 085037] Published Thu Apr 28, 2016
    Keywords: Field Theory, Formal Particle Theory
    Print ISSN: 0556-2821
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-4918
    Topics: Physics
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