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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Hoboken, N. J. : Wiley
    Call number: 1.10/M 09.0214
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xli, 571 S. + 1 CD-ROM
    Edition: 2nd ed.
    ISBN: 9780470398173
    Classification: A.1.10.
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-8744
    Keywords: bioavailability ; phenytoin ; Michaelis-Menten kinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The bioavailability of capsules of phenytoin was determined by two methods: a method involving the numerical integration of the Michaelis-Menten equation and an alternative method involving fitting the time course of plasma concentrations, following the administration of the reference intravenous dosage, to an empirical quadratic function of time. The latter procedure requires much simpler computations. The two methods yielded very similar estimates of the rate and extent of absorption of phenytoin. Total absorption was 0.90±0.05 and 0.89±0.05(x±SE, n=6)using the methods of numerical integration and quadratic curve fitting, respectively. Both methods indicated that the rate of absorption of phenytoin was inconsistent and slow. Half the total absorption of phenytoin occurred over 2.5 ±0.3 hr but the remainder was absorbed very slowly over a period of about 30 hr. Empirical functions may be more generally useful in the determinations of the bioavalability of drugs, particularly if some aspects of the disposition are saturable.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5001
    Keywords: Zinc-binding domain ; DNA repair ; XPA ; Backbone assignments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Animal model ; Neutropenia ; Trichosporon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Life-threatening disseminated infection withTrichosporon beigelii (trichosporonosis) is a rare mycosis most commonly seen in patients with hematologic malignancies made neutropenic by cytotoxic therapy. This infection is usually resistant to conventional antifungal therapies. Poor correlation between therapeutic outcome of trichosporonosis and in vitro susceptibility of clinical isolates ofT. beigelii to antifungal agents is often reported. To obtain a better understanding of its pathogenesis, and to aid in the future study of the therapy of this disease, a murine model of trichosporonosis was developed. The in vitro growth of clinical isolates ofT. beigelii was first studied. Subsequently, mice made neutropenic with cyclophosphamide were inoculated intravenously with the fungus to produce the disease model. Inoculum size which produced 100% mortality, yet allowed an apparent therapeutic window (6×106) was determined. Tissue distribution and burden of organism during the course of infection was examined by viability and histopathologic studies.T. beigelii disseminated rapidly in this model, involving numerous organs including the heart, brain, kidneys, lungs, and liver. The heart and kidneys of the infected animals showed evidence of infection as early as 6 hours following inoculation. Further understanding of the pathogenesis of trichosporonosis in the neutropenic host was imparted by this study. This will aid in the future study of antibiotic treatment of this disease and its untreated progression.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The finding by earlier workers that Escherichia coli suppressed the growth of Candida albicans in vitro or in gnotobiotic mice has led to numerous, erroneous conclusions regarding the identity of the organisms and mechanisms responsible for the suppression of Candida in the gut. This is due, in part, to the fact that nearly all studies to date have not reflected interactions as they occur in the intestinal tract. This paper describes a series of experiments that establish that an anaerobic continuous-flow (CF) culture model, of the ecology of the large intestinal flora reproduces interactions between bacteria and Candida as they occur in the large intestine. This was determined in the following ways. (i) Bacterial counts in CF cultures of conventional mouse cecal flora or human fecal flora closely resembled that found in the mouse intestine and human feces. (ii) Dense layers of bacterial growth that formed on the glass walls of the CF culture vessels resembled bacterial populations that colonize intestinal mucosa. (iii) Total and individual levels of certain metabolic end-products of the predominant anaerobic bacterial flora present in CF cultures coincided with those found in the large intestine of conventional mice or human feces used to establish the CF cultures. (iv) C. albicans was eliminated from CF cultures of mouse cecal flora at a rate similar to that of untreated experimental animals. (v) Contents of CF cultures fed to antibiotic-treated mice redressed several cecal abnormalities, and suppressed Candida populations to levels found in conventional animals. Thus, a number of complex ecological mechanisms were maintained in CF cultures which normally control Candida populations in the large intestine. It is suggested, therefore, that the CF culture model should help to further define the mechanisms which control C. albicans and other fungi in the intestinal tract, as well as define which components of the indigenous microflora are responsible for suppression of Candida in the gut.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A previous study had established that a select group of pathogenic isolates of Candida albicans was capable of switching heritably, reversibly and at a high frequency (10−2 to 10−3) between two phenotypes (‘white’ or ‘opaque’) readily distinguishable by the size, shape, and color of colonies formed on agar at 25°C. This paper describes experiments designed to determine the ability of these two phenotypes to attach to buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and plastic, and to compare the cell surface hydrophobicities of white and opaque phenotypes from three clinical isolates. ‘White cells’ were found to be significantly more adhesive to BECs, and a strong correlation was also found between phenotype adhesiveness and the percentage of BECs to which C. albicans had attached. The percentage of BECs with one or more attached C. albicans was approximately 90% for the white phenotype and approximately 50% for the opaque phenotype. ‘Opaque cells’, in contrast, were twice as hydrophobic as white cells, and the percentage of opaque cells bound to BECs by coadhesion was also double that of white cells. The differences in adhesion to plastic between the two phenotypes were not statistically significant and there was no distinct trend to suggest which phenotype might be more adhesive to plastic. These results indicate that several factors are involved in the adhesion of C. albicans to plastic, and confirm the hypothesis that cell surface hydrophobicity is of minor importance in direct adhesion to epithelial cells but that it may contribute to indirect attachment to epithelial cells by promoting yeast coadhesion. Moreover, the data presented in this paper also revealed that under identical growth conditions, adhesion of C. albicans was significantly altered depending on the phenotypic state of the organism tested. Therefore, because C. albicans can switch at a high frequency to various phenotypes in vitro, it may be that in future adhesion studies involving Candida the phenotypic state of the organism at the time of testing will have to be determined. Otherwise, the results, even within the same laboratory, may be difficult to interpret.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 109 (1990), S. 123-137 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fungal adhesion and aggregation is considered an important event in human, animal and plant disease as well as in the ecology of fungi in nature (e.g., in mating reactions and the dispersion of fungal propagules). Because of this, numerous models have been developed to study fungal adhesion and aggregation mechanisms over the last decade. Unfortunately, however, nearly all of the work in this area has been carried out in simple in vitro models and has focused its attention on that of the attachment process alone, while realitively little effort has been made toward understanding the role adhesion and aggregation plays in colonization or pathogenesis. The emphasis on adhesion and aggregation mechanisms appears, therefore, to have somewhat obscured the study of the interaction of adhesion with other factors that may be of equal or greater importance in these processes and to the development of more complex adhesion models to explore the relationship between adhesion and colonization. Moreover, because it has not generally been appreciated that several methodologic pitfalls accompany the use of simple in vitro adhesion models, there is now emerging a confused literature base with regard to: (i) the nature of the cell wall component(s) of Candida albicans that mediates its attachment to, for example, epithelial cells; (ii) the mechanism(s) of invasion of mucosal and endothelial surfaces; and (iii) the role certain adhesive reactions observed in vitro play in colonization and pathogenesis by this fungus. Therefore, with an emphasis on C. albicans, this paper will attempt to put into perspective the uses and limitations of models for studying the role of fungal attachment in colonization and pathogenesis. In addition, factors that can modify fungal adhesion data will be discussed and the beginnings of a standardized assay to study the adhesion of C. albicans to buccal epithelial cells will be described.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Keywords: shrew ; cytogenetics ; translocations ; monobrachial homology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Chromosomal polymorphism was assessed in the southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis) using standard metaphase chromosome and G-banding techniques. Twenty-one animals (11 males, 10 females) from the Meeman Biological Station in Shelby Co., Tennessee, were examined for diploid number. Results showed diploid numbers of 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 and fundamental numbers of 41, 42, 43, 44 and 45. No diploid numbers or fundamental numbers were unique to a specific collecting locality. The first G-banded karyotypes are reported for the species. These results indicate that Robertsonian polymorphisms, inversions, and possibly other events are responsible for chromosomal variation in B. carolinensis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1570-0267
    Keywords: structural genomics ; RNase H ; NMR ; methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The solution structure of MTH1175, a 124-residue protein from the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. MTH1175 is part of a family of conserved hypothetical proteins (COG1433) with unknown functions which contains multiple paralogs from all complete archaeal genomes and the archaeal gene-rich bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Sequence similarity indicates this protein family may be related to the nitrogen fixation proteins NifB and NifX. MTH1175 adopts an α/β topology with a single mixed β-sheet, and contains two flexible loops and an unstructured C-terminal tail. The fold resembles that of Ribonuclease H and similar proteins, but differs from these in several respects, and is not likely to have a nuclease activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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