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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Magnetospheric studies often require knowledge of the orientation of the IMF. In order to test the accuracy of using magnetometer data from a spacecraft orbiting the sunward libration point for this purpose, the angle between the IMF at ISEE 3, when it was positioned around the libration point, and at ISEE 1, orbiting Earth, has been calculated for a data set of two-hour periods covering four months. For each period, a ten-minute average of ISEE 1 data is compared with ten-minute averages of ISEE 3 data at successively lagged intervals. At the lag time equal to the time required for the solar wind to convect from ISEE 3 to ISEE 1, the median angle between the IMF orientation at the two spacecraft is 20 deg, and 80% of the cases have angles less than 38 deg. The results for the angles projected on the y-z plane are essentially the same.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-175809 , NAS 1.26:175809
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of a preliminary design study which investigates the use of selected advanced technologies to achieve low cost design for small (50-passenger), short haul (50 to 1000 mile) transports are reported. The largest single item in the cost of manufacturing an airplane of this type is labor. A careful examination of advanced technology to airframe structure was performed since one of the most labor-intensive parts of the airplane is structures. Also, preliminary investigation of advanced aerodynamics flight controls, ride control and gust load alleviation systems, aircraft systems and turbo-prop propulsion systems was performed. The most beneficial advanced technology examined was bonded aluminum primary structure. The use of this structure in large wing panels and body sections resulted in a greatly reduced number of parts and fasteners and therefore, labor hours. The resultant cost of assembled airplane structure was reduced by 40% and the total airplane manufacturing cost by 16% - a major cost reduction. With further development, test verification and optimization appreciable weight saving is also achievable. Other advanced technology items which showed significant gains are as follows: (1) advanced turboprop-reduced block fuel by 15.30% depending on range; (2) configuration revisions (vee-tail)-empennage cost reduction of 25%; (3) leading-edge flap addition-weight reduction of 2500 pounds.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: D6-46320 , NASA-CR-152089
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 364: 193-204.
    Publication Date: 2012-04-23
    Description: The development of the Vale of St Albans groundwater model made use of two techniques not commonly used in UK regional modelling studies: parameter estimation (using PEST) and representation of dual storage. Parameter estimation techniques can significantly improve model calibration and can be used to inform model development. Because parameter estimation typically involves running a groundwater model many hundreds of times, using a steady-state version of the model can help to keep run times short. Care must be taken to ensure that the parameter distributions produced through these techniques are conceptually defensible, and they must be checked against the conceptual model and modified where necessary. Simulation of extreme conditions such as floods and droughts can be problematic for Chalk aquifers. Previous studies have shown that the Chalk can be resistant to drought, with higher flows recorded in rivers than can be accounted for from releases from fissure storage alone. An approach has been developed that simulates a weak hydraulic connection between fissures and a proportion of matrix storage within the Chalk, providing a delayed yield of significant additional volumes of water during droughts. The application of this approach results in a significant improvement in the simulation of extreme events.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The relationship between low-altitude auroral-zone field-aligned currents and the geomagnetic tail is investigated on the basis of a statistical analysis of ISEE and DE observations. The data are compiled in diagrams and graphs and characterized in detail. It is shown that the large-scale current systems of low-altitude regions 1 and 2 are only reduplicated in 27 percent of the observations at 2-7 earth radii (those associated with the onset of a substorm expansion), while the flow at the plasma-sheet boundary opposes the region 1 polarity (the highest-latitude near-midnight currents being directed earthward).
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The ISEE 1 and 2 magnetometers are used to examine a current sheet which is moving outward with a velocity of about 17 km/sec, and whose current is flowing into the ionosphere. A wave is traveling along the current sheet, from midnight toward the east, at 400 km/sec. The plasma oscillations normal to the current sheet associated with this wave are sufficient for explaining the amplitude of the electric field oscillations in the plane of the current sheet observed by the University of California's electric field detector. The present oscillating current sheet model explains both magnetic and electric field observations.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 2745-275
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Magnetic field measurements obtained in the nightside magnetosphere by the co-orbiting ISEE-1 and 2 spacecraft have been examined for signatures of field-aligned currents (FAC). Such currents are found on the boundary of the plasma sheet both when the plasma sheet is expanding and when it is thinning. Evidence is often found for the existence of waves on the plasma sheet boundary, leading to multiple crossings of the FAC sheet. At times the boundary layer FAC sheet orientation is nearly parallel to the X-Z GSM plane, suggesting 'protrusions' of plasma sheet into the lobes. The boundary layer current polarity is, as expected, into the ionosphere in the midnight to dawn local time sector, and outward near dusk. Current sheet thicknesses and velocities are essentially independent of plasma sheet expansion or thinning, having typical values of 1500 km and 20-40 km/s respectively. Characteristic boundary layer current densities are about 10 nanoamps per square meter.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 5; 4, 19
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Design and program for Apollo Lunar Excursion Module, noting propulsion, guidance, control, ground support, etc
    Keywords: SPACE VEHICLES
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: Technical development status of project Apollo lunar excursion module
    Keywords: SPACE VEHICLES
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Signatures of Birkeland currents in the earth's inner magnetosphere observed from the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft during November 1977-December 1978 at distances ranging from 2.4-7.0 earth radii are examined. The data reveal that most of the currents were detected during outbound rather than inbound passes. Large-scale current structures were identified as parts of the region 1 and 2 current systems in 27 percent of the spacecraft outbound passes; no distinguishable region 1 or 2 currents were detected in 19 percent of the outbound passes; and in 54 percent of the passes multiple current structures and ambiguous magnetic signatures were observed. The properties of Birkeland current structures observed on January 31, 1978, February 28, 1978, March 15, 1978, June 21, 1978, and June 25, 1978 are described. It is observed that the current sheet thicknesses range from 519-18,279 km; sheet current density ranges from 13-150 mA/m; and the volume current density ranges from 1.7-128 nA/sq m.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 6945-695
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) conducted its fourth and fifth flights in late March 1992 and early April 1993 along with the ATLAS-1 and ATLAS-2 Shuttle missions, respectively. The two successive SSBUV flights yielded ozone data nearly one year apart. An analysis of the meteorological conditions, namely temperature and winds, during the two flight periods indicate that the conditions in the stratosphere were very similar. The temperatures had significantly warmed from winter throughout most of the stratosphere and the circulation was approaching normal summertime conditions for both periods. SSBUV-4, flown in 1992, measured ozone from approximately 30S to 60N while SSBUV-5, flown in 1993, measured ozone from approximately 55S to 60N. Zonal average column ozone amounts were derived from the two flights and compared to determine if a systematic change in ozone could be detected despite the fact that only a few days from each year were sampled. The comparison indicates that in the latitude range 30N to 60N total ozone was lower in 1993 than in 1992 by about 12%. This change is larger than the observational errors and the expected interannual variations. This result verifies similar data taken from ground and satellites.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Paper-96GL01120 , ATLAS Series of Shuttle Missions (ISSN 0094-8534); 23; 17; 2305-2316; NASA-TM-112752
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