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  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: steroid hormone ; glucocorticoids ; osteocalcin ; alkaline phosphatase ; glucocorticoid receptor ; nuclear proto-oncogenes ; c-myc ; c-fos ; c-jun ; human osteoblast cells ; mRNA levels ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: In humans, glucocorticoids are known to have marked effects on bone metabolism and function, including the significant regulation of osteoblast cells. To aid in the understanding of the mechanism of glucocorticoid action on normal human osteoblasts (hOB), confluent cells were analyzed for the presence of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) as well as for the effects of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) on the expression of both the rapid responding nuclear proto-oncogenes and the late responding structural genes for bone matrix proteins. The interactions between Dex and 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25 3) on the gene expression in these cells were also examined. Using a functional receptor assay, a mean of 11,600 functioal nuclear bound glucocorticoid receptors (range 6,000-22,000) was measured in fifteen separate cell strains. Northern blot analysis with a cDNA probe to the human GR was used to demonstrate the presence of a 7Kb transcript which is a candidate mRNA for GR in these cells. In arragement with previous studies, treatment of the hOB cells with Dex increased the steady state mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (AP) but displayed little or no effect on the mRNA levels for osteocalcin (OC) and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Interestingly, the 1,25 D3 inductions of mRNA levels for OC were blocked by Dex but enhanced for AP. The above effects of Dex on AP and OCgene expression, including the interaction with 1,25 D3, were also shown to occur at the level of protein. The effect of Dex on the mRNA levels of the nuclear proto-oncogenes c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun was also investigated, since the oncoproteins (Fos/Jun) appear to play a role in the delayed glucocorticoid regulation of structural genes. Interestingly, Dex increased the steady state levels of c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun mRNAs in nonproliferating (confluent) hOB cells by 3.5-, 10-, and 2.0-fold, respectively, over control (untreated cells) values within one h of steroid treatment. The Dex-induced mRNA levels were transient and returned to basal values within 24 h of the steroid treatment. A reduced but qualitatively similar pattern of response was found in proliferating hOB cells. The pattern of response of these genes to glucocorticoids in hOB cells mimics the response in avian liver cells but not in reproductive cells. These results support the theory that hOB cells are target cells for glucocorticoids, and that as a primary event glucocorticoids rapidly regulate the expression of the nuclear oncoproteins Fos/Jun in these cells. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: prostaglandin ; phospholipase A2 ; age ; tumor necrosis factor-α ; transforming growth factor-β1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The eicosanoids, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other bioactive arachidonic acid metabolites, are important local mediators of bone remodeling. Presumably, the limited or excessive synthesis of the eicosanoids could compromise bone homeostasis. We have noted that the stimulated release of arachidonic acid by adult male donor derived human osteoblast-like (hOB) cells exceeded the stimulated release measured for female-derived hOB cells by 1.5-fold. Assays of PGE2 biosynthesis by cytokine-stimulated hOB cells also demonstrated a sex-linked difference, such that male hOB cell PGE2 production exceeded female cell production by 1.6-2.2-fold. The calcium-dependent cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 activity in subcellular fractions prepared from hOB cell homogenates was higher in both the cytosolic (1.6-fold) and particulate (1.5-fold) fractions from the male cells than in those prepared from female hOB cells, suggesting a molecular basis for the observed sexually dimorphic characteristics related to arachidonic acid metabolism by hOB cells. The relatively limited capacity of the female cells may limit needed intracellular and intercellular signaling during bone remodeling, thereby contributing to the development of bone pathology. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:74-81, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: cyclooxygenase ; transforming growth factor-β1 ; tumor necrosis factor-α ; interleukin-1β ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis by cytokine stimulated normal adult human osteoblast-like (hOB) cells was evaluated by thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, and specific immunoassays. PGE2 was the predominant PG formed under all incubation conditions tested. Control samples produced measurable amounts of PGE2, and the measured level of this metabolite increased by 22-fold (from 7 to 152 ng/ml) following a 20 h treatment with the combination of TGFβ and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF). The production of 6-keto-PGF1α (the stable metabolite of prostacyclin) and of PGF2α were each increased by about five-fold (from about 0.5 to 2.5 ng/ml) in samples treated with the cytokines. Thus, TGFβ and TNF exerted a regulation of hOB cell PG biosynthesis that was principally directed towards an increased PGE2 biosynthesis, with lesser effects on the production of other PG metabolites. COX-2 mRNA levels were increased within 2 h of cytokine stimulation, reached a maximum at 6-12 h, and levels had appreciably diminished by 24 h after treatment. Both TGFβ and TNF could independently increase COX-2 mRNA levels and PG biosynthesis. However, the increased production of PGE2 resulting from TNF stimulation was blocked by the addition of an interleukin-1β (IL-1β) neutralizing antibody, suggesting that TNF regulation of hOB cell PG synthesis was secondary to its capacity to increase hOB cell IL-1β production. TGFβ regulation of PG production was not affected by the addition of the neutralizing antibody. These studies support the proposition that PGs can be important autocrine/paracrine mediators of bone biology, whose production by hOB cells is responsively regulated by osteotropic cytokines. J. Cell. Biochem. 64:618-631. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: 17β-estradiol ; phosphatidylinositol ; gas chromatography ; fatty acid metabolism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The effects of treatment with the osteotropic steroids 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), 17β-estradiol, or dexamethasone on [1-14C]arachidonic acid (AA) uptake and distribution into glycerophospholipid classes by normal adult human osteoblast-like (hOB) cells were investigated. Total uptake of [1-14C]AA was decreased in cells treated with dexamethasone when assayed after a 24-, 48-, or 96-h exposure to the hormone. Specific radiolabel incorporation into phosphatidylcholine was reduced by a 48-h treatment with dexamethasone with a concurrent increase in the radiolabeling of phosphatidylethanolamine. However, these changes were transient, and by 96 h of dexamethasone treatment the distribution of the radiolabeled fatty acid had reequilibrated to resemble the pattern found for vehicle treated samples. Total uptake of [1-14C]AA was diminished by 96-h treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (79 ± 3% of control, P 〈 0.01); at that time point, a significant decrease in the proportional radiolabeling of the phosphatidylinositol pool was identified (92 ± 2% of control, P 〈 0.05). The 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent decrease in total uptake and in phosphatidylinositol incorporation of [1-14C]AA were found to be hormone dose dependent. Treatment with 24,25(OH)2D3 was without effect on either total [1-14C]AA uptake or the specific [1-14C]AA radiolabeling of the phosphatidylinositol pool. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment decreased hOB cell uptake of [1-14C]oleic acid and decreased its proportional incorporation into the phosphatidylinositol pool. Gas chromatographic analyses revealed no 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent effects on total phosphatidylinositol lipid mass or on the mole percent of arachidonic acid within the phosphatidylinositol pool, leaving the mechanism of the effects of the secosteroid on hOB cell AA metabolism unexplained. 17β-Estradiol had no effects on the parameters of AA metabolism measured. As a consequence of their modulation of arachidonic acid uptake and its distribution into hOB cellular phospholipids, steroids might alter the biological effects of other hormones whose actions include the stimulated production of bioactive AA metabolites, such as prostaglandins or the various lipoxygenase products.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: osteoporosis ; dexamethasone ; glucocorticoids ; prostaglandins ; phospholipase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Eicosanoids are multifunctional autocrine/paracrine regulators of bone that are enzymatically derived from arachidonic acid (AA). The rate-limiting step in the eicosanoid biosynthetic pathways may be the release of AA from membrane glycerophospholipids by activated phospholipases. Free AA can serve as the substrate for cyclooxygenase(s) or lipoxygenases that catalyze the commitive steps in eicosanoid synthesis; alternatively, free AA may be used in reacylation processes, resulting in its reincorporation into cellular lipids. The hormones 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) have been identified as regulators of AA metabolism, at various levels, in several tissues including bone. The possibility that these osteotropic steroids modulate the availability of free AA in bone cells was studied in the human osteoblast-like (hOB) cell model system. Following a 48-h steroid pretreatment, bradykinin or the calcium ionophore A23187 were used as agonists to stimulate hOB cell release of AA. The principal findings from these investigations were that (1) 17β-E2 pretreatment potentiated the appearance of free AA following bradykinin stimulation of the cells but, did not alter their response to A23187 stimulation; (2) dexamethasone pretreatment limited bradykinin-induced increases in free AA levels but did not alter cell response to A23187 stimulation; (3) hOB cells derived from different trabecular bone compartments (manubrium of the sternum, femoral head) differed quantitatively in their responses to bradykinin stimulation of AA release; and (4) 1,25(OH)2D3 did not effect AA release stimulated by either agonist. The ability of the steroids to modulate AA release by hOB cells suggests that these hormones may indirectly mediate bone cell responses to other osteotropic hormones that act through eicosanoid-dependent processes. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: transforming growth factor-β ; tumor necrosis factor-α ; phospholipase A2 ; arachidonic acid ; AACOCF3 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The steroid derivative 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is a regulator of bone biology, and there is evidence that 1,25(OH)2D3 modulates arachidonic acid metabolism in osteoblastic cell model systems and in bone organ cultures. In the present studies, 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis by normal adult human osteoblast-like (hOB) cell cultures by about 30%. The decrease was observed under basal incubation conditions, or in specimens stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) or by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF). The inhibition of the TGF-β-stimulated PG production appeared to reflect a diminished efficiency of arachidonic acid conversion into PGs by the cells, while the efficiency of substrate utilization for PG biosynthesis was unaffected by 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment in the unstimulated samples, or in samples stimulated with TNF or with TNF plus TGF-β. Free arachidonic acid levels were decreased following 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment in the TNF stimulated samples. hOB cell phospholipase A2 activity was measured in subcellular fractions, and this activity was decreased by 20-25% in the 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreated samples. The addition of the selective inhibitor AACOCF3 to the phospholipase A2 assays provided evidence that it was the cytoplasmic isoform of the enzyme that was affected by the 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment of the hOB cells. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulation of hOB cell biology includes significant effects on arachidonic acid metabolism. In turn, this could influence the effects of other hormones and cytokines whose actions include the stimulated production of bioactive arachidonic acid metabolites. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:237-246, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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