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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: microencapsulation ; cellulose acetate phthalate ; enteric-coated granules ; drug release in vitro ; sulfamethoxazole
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A formulation containing cellulose acetate phthalate for preparing enteric-coated granules was developed with the use of granulation and microencapsulation techniques. Drug release from tablets or tabletted microcapsules was measured in a disintegration apparatus and an in vitro variable-pH release simulator of the flow type. The release mechanism for the tablets or tabletted microcapsules was determined with the Higuchi matrix model, a first-order kinetic model, and the Weibull distribution function. Adding acetone directly to the mixture of sulfamethoxazole and cellulose acetate phthalate resulted in enteric-coated granules with more prolonged release than other granulation methods. Microencapsulation of the granules significantly delayed the drug release and enhanced the effectiveness of the enteric coating. Microencapsulated granules show release patterns that are sustained and can be simulated with three different release models, i.e., with square-root time plotting, diffusional first-order plotting, and Weibull distribution plotting. The enteric-coating behavior of the tablets was more clearly demonstrated with the variable-pH release simulator than with a fixed-pH dissolution method.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Foetal heart rate ; Pattern recognition ; Signal processing ; Uterine contraction curves
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The foetal heart rate and uterine contraction curves provide both continuous and real-time information on the foetus. In recent years, attempts have been made to automatically diagnose foetal distress using a computer to provide direct analysis of this information. In the present study, we performed pattern-analysis of the foetal heart rate and uterine contraction curves using a minicomputer on 476 mothers who gave birth at the hospital attached to Hamamatsu University School of Medicine from April 1978 to March 1980. We developed the algorithm for these curves. The algorithm was roughly divided into two groups, original signal process and pattern-recognition algorithms. Following the autocorrelation and noise reduction of original signals, the algorithm was analysed. The algorithmic analysis consisted of the calculation of baseline f.h.r. recognition of deceleration, recognition of uterine contraction, and classification of the deceleration pattern. By using these algorithms, the true diagnostic distribution rate was obtained: early deceleration: 76%, variable deceleration: 88%, late deceleration: 72%, and prolonged deceleration: 81%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 31 (1996), S. 3697-3700 
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract HfC whiskers were prepared from a gas mixture of HfCl4 + CH4 + H2 + Ar in the presence of metal impurities, and the growth conditions and morphology were examined. The HfC whiskers preferentially grew at an H/Cl ratio of above 8, an HfCl4 gas flow rate of 10–20 standard cm3 min−1, a CH4 flow rate of 10–20 standard cm3 min−1, and at temperatures above 1050 °C. HfC whiskers, 60–170 μm long, with a ball-like tip and periodically varying diameters, were obtained at 1250 °C using a cobalt impurity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Photosensitization in liposomes ; tetraphenylporphyrin in liposomes ; singlet oxygen in liposomes ; photodegradation of methyl orange by singlet oxygen ; distribution of methyl orange in liposome suspension ; liposomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), was used as a sensitizer, and an anionic dye, methyl orange (MO), was employed as a substrate of photooxidation. TPP was incorporated into the hydrophobic environment of phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer membranes, liposomes. When oxygen was purged out of the liposome suspension by nitrogen bubbling, the degradation of MO was completely inhibited. A specific superoxide scavenger, superoxide dismutase, had no effect on the MO degradation. The replacement of H2O by D2O resulted in a 10 times enhancement in the photodegradation of MO. These results suggested that singlet oxygen was generated by the TPP photosensitization and worked as the mediator of the photoreaction from TPP. Trisulphonated TPP,α-phenyl-Β,γ, δ-tri(p-sulphonyl)porphyrin (TPPS), is soluble in aqueous solution. The light irradiation to an aqueous solution of TPPS gave rise to the rapid bleaching (decomposition) of the sensitizer itself. On the other hand, TPP in the hydrophobic environment of liposomes was stable during light irradiation and worked as a sensitizer for the continuous photoreaction. Maximum reactivity was observed at the PC/TPP mole ratio of 50. When TPP molecules were incorporated into liposomes at larger concentrations (PC/TPP〈50), a part of the excitation energy of the sensitizer molecules was nonradiatively converted into the lattice energy by the resonance between the closely located TPP molecules. This led to lower efficiency for the photoactivation of oxygen. On the other hand, the increase in liposome concentration resulted in the enhancement of the MO binding to lipid membranes and the retardation of MO degradation. Also, the electrostatic attraction and repulsion between the membrane and the substrate influenced the reaction rate greatly. The oxidative degradations of the substrate by singlet oxygen were considered to be much faster in the polar environment than in the less polar environment. The charge transfer or the polarized transition complex of singulet oxygen and MO are presumed to be stabilized in the polar environment. The distribution of substrate between the less polar membrane surface and the polar bulk aqueous solution was another important factor in the photooxidation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We have developed a gas Cherenkov counter to measure μSR time spectra macroscopically in a high-intensity pulsed muon beam. We measured each macroscopic pulse from the Cherenkov radiation induced by decay positrons from muons using a fast transient digitizer. This counter using Freon-12 at normal pressure is characterized by its target imaging capability and suitable threshold for muon-decay electron (Ee〉10MeV). We describe its principle and performance.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 59 (1988), S. 1186-1188 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Temperature distribution in a cylindrical furnace used in a high-pressure apparatus has been calculated by the difference method. The calculated values are in good agreement with the experimental observations obtained by an x-ray diffraction method. A steep temperature gradient exists in a simple cylindrical furnace. In order to obtain a homogeneous temperature distribution, a furnace composed of a graphite tube and two graphite disks has been designed. It has been demonstrated that a homogeneous temperature distribution can be obtained by selecting proper resistivities for the tube and the disks. The design requires a large power input, which could result in a shorter lifetime of the anvils.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Rotational spectra of 6LiNaF2 and 7LiNaF2 were measured by microwave absorption and Fourier-transform spectroscopy at different low rotational temperatures obtained by an adiabatic expansion in a beam and by collisional cooling in a cold absorption cell. Precise rotational constants, quartic centrifugal constants, quadrupole coupling constants, and the electric dipole moment were determined from least-squares fits of the experimental transition frequencies. Bond lengths and angles and the dipole moment are found to be in good agreement with recent ab initio calculations. As in homogeneous dimers, monomer to dimer bond expansions calculated from an ionic model are too large. The electric dipole moment from the ionic model is in excellent agreement with the ab initio result when experimental bond distances and angles are used and a 100% ionic character of the dimer bonds is assumed. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0968-0896
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0005-2760
    Keywords: (Rat, Mouse, Guinea pig) ; Acyl-CoA hydrolase ; Ctofibrale ; Enzyme induction
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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