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  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: platelets ; morphological change ; [Ca2+]i ; confocal laser scanning microscopy ; surface contact activation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The dynamic change of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and morphological change were investigated simultaneously by confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-3 and by differential interference contrast optics in platelets activated by contact with the following types of surfaces: native glass and glass treated with poly-L-lysine (PLL), fibrinogen (Fg), or von Willebrand factor (vWF). The initial [Ca2+]i values just after the surface contact were comparable (approximately 100 nM) among platelets deposited on the four surface types. On the PLL-surface, no morphological change or [Ca2+]i elevation was observed. Glass-, Fg-, and vWF-surface adhered platelets showed pseudopod formation and spreading associated with the inhomogeneous [Ca2+]i rise. The platelets on the Fg-surface were the most active in terms of [Ca2+]i rise and morphological change. During pseudopod formation, the mean [Ca2+]i value was maximal and localized high [Ca2+]i zones were observed inside pseudopods, as well as in the center of the platelets. After spreading, high [Ca2+]i zones still remained in the center of the cell. This new technique enabled simultaneous observation of [Ca2+]i and cell shape and we clearly demonstrated a close relationship between [Ca2+]i and morphological alterations. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: fluid shear stress ; adrenomedullin ; endothelial cell ; SSRE ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Vascular endothelial cells are potent modulators of vascular tone in response to shear stress. Levels of vasoactive peptides such as adrenomedullin (AM), endothelin-1 (ET-1), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and nitric oxide (NO) are affected by fluid shear stress. AM, a potent vasodilator and suppressor of smooth muscle cell proliferation, contains the shear stress responsive element (SSRE) “GAGACC” in its promoter region. To examine the role of AM in the shear stress response, cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs) were exposed to fluid shear stresses of 12 and 24 dynes/cm2 in a cone-plate shear stress loading apparatus for various time periods, and the levels of AM gene expression and peptide secretion from HAoECs were measured by Northern blotting analysis and radioimmunoassay (RIA), respectively. Both AM gene transcription and AM peptide levels were down-regulated by fluid shear stress in a time- and magnitude-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the normal level of arterial shear stress down-regulates AM expression in HAoECs, suggesting that AM participates in the modulation of vascular tone by fluid shear stress. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:109-115, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: calcyculin A ; protein phosphatase ; cytoskeleton ; endothelial cell ; immunocytochemsitry ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins regulate the shape of eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the role of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP) in this process, we studied the effect of calyculin A (CLA), a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP-1) and 2A (PP-2A) on the cytoskeletal structure of cultured human umbilical vien endothelial cells (HUVECs). The addition of CLA (5 min) caused marked alterations in cell morphology, such as cell constriction and bleb formation. Microtubules and F-actin were reorganized, becoming markedly condensed around the nucleus. Although the fluorescence intensity of phosphoamino acids was not significantly different to immunocytochemistry between cells with and without CLA, polypeptides of 135, 140, 158, and 175 kDa were specifically phosphorylated on serine and/or threonine residues. There was no significant effect on tyrosine residues. The effects of CLA on cytoskeletal changes and protein phosphorylation were almost completely inhibited by the non-selective kinase inhibitor, K-252a. The effect of CLA on cell morphology was at least 100 times more potent than that of okadaic acid, consistent with the inhibitory potency against PP-1. The catalytic subunit of PP-1 was also identified in HUVECs by Western blotting with its monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that PP-1 is closely involved in sustaining the normal structure of the cytoskeleton. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: superoxide ; p47phox ; phosphorylation ; okadaic acid ; protein phosphatase 1 and 2A ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We examined the effects of okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitor, on superoxide generation in human neutrophils. Superoxide generation induced by fMLP was inhibited by low-dose okadaic acid (10-100 nM), but it had no effect on superoxide synthesis by PMA, and the fMLP-induced rise of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was not affected by low-dose okadaic acid. These findings suggested that the inhibitory mechanism of okadaic acid might involve PKC-independent and Ca2+-independent pathways in fMLP induced NADPH oxidase activation.Both fMLP-stimulated phosphorylation of serine residues in p47phox and its translocation to the plasma membrane were suppressed by low-dose okadaic acid. On the other hand, PMA-induced phosphorylation and translocation of p47phox were not affected by such a low dose of okadaic acid. These findings suggested that fMLP induced phosphorylation of serine residues in p47phox was regulated by protein phosphatase 2A, and its phosphorylation was necessary for translocation and superoxide generation in fMLP-activated human neutrophils. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]n ; Ca2+ gradients ; confocal laser scanning microscopy ; Fluo-3 ; heterogeneity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Ca2+ concentration inside human umbilical vein endothelial cells was studied separately in cytosol and nucleus by a confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-3. The in vivo calibration curve for cytosol and nucleus showed good linearity between fluorescence intensity and Ca2+ concentration in cytosol ([Ca2+]i) and nuclei ([Ca2+]n). After calibration, [Ca2+]n was constantly higher than [Ca2+]i before and after the chelation of extracellular Ca2+ suggesting an active Ca2+ accumulation system on nuclear membrane. [Ca2+]n was also constantly higher than [Ca2+]i after the stimulation of thrombin (0.05 U/ml), FCS (10%), and thapsigargin (Tsg, 1μM). The temporal change of [Ca2+]n and [Ca2+]i was identical, and [Ca2+]i gradient towards the nucleus and peripheral or central [Ca2+]n rise was observed after these stimulations. From these results, [Ca2+]n is not only regulated by the active Ca2+ accumulation system on nuclear membrane at rest but also the generation of Inositol-triphosphate. FCS caused heterogeneous [Ca2+]n or [Ca2+]i rise from cell to cell; single spike or oscillatory change of [Ca2+]n and [Ca2+]i was observed in about 56% of cells, which were completely abolished by the chelation of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that FCS stimulated [Ca2+]n and [Ca2+]i rise solely depending on Ca2+ influx from extracellular medium. The higher concentration of [Ca2+]n and heterogeneous [Ca2+]n rise may have important roles in nuclear-specific cellular responses. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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