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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Contours and gridded values are given for seven years of monthly mean total ozone data derived from observations with the Backscattered Ultraviolet instrument on Nimbus-4 for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The instrument, algorithm, uncertainties in derived ozone and systematic changes in the bias with respect to the international groundbased ozone network of Dobson instruments, are discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-RP-1098 , REPT-82F0128-VOL-1 , NAS 1.61:1098
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Washington Upper Atmopshere Res. Program; p 203-204
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The influence of the geographical distribution and the number of the surface stations in the ozone detecting network on changes in global ozone inferred from the surface measurements is investigated by comparison with information obtained from satellite backscattered UV observations on the Nimbus 4 with nearly complete global coverage for the period 1970-1972. Results show that the geographical distribution of the stations does not properly represent different latitudes. While the number of stations in the north temperate zone appears adequate to represent monthly ozone averages to within 0.5% except during the early phase of the Northern Hemisphere spring maximum, the resultant error in the derived change in north temperature zone ozone between 1970-1972 is 0.5%. In the tropical and south temperate zones the smaller number of stations reduces precision, and the ozone averages for use in deriving seasonal variability and trends are uncertain by about 1%. However, in the south temperature zone, the average from the sample may differ as much as 5% in some months from the averages derived from the full set. It is concluded that the resulting uncertainty in the global averages is comparable in size to typical yearly changes.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 87; Aug. 20
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A description is provided of the algorithm used by the Ozone Processing Team at NASA to process seven years of Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) ozone profile data. The algorithm is a modification of the original retrieval algorithm developed by Mateer (1972) to process some of the early data from the BUV experiment. Principal changes made are in the first guess selection scheme, the use of all wavelengths in the inversion, and the weighting of the various wavelengths according to the errors in the radiance estimation. It is found that the described BUV ozone profile algorithm is an extremely efficient algorithm for retrieving large amounts of satellite data. The algorithm makes full use of all the available information from the measured radiances including the longer wavelength radiances which previously had not been used.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Atmospheric Radiation; June 16-18, 1981; Toronto; Canada
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The retrieval of the ozone profile from satellite ultraviolet measurements can be extended to greater depths when multiple scattering is taken into account. The sensitivity of the multiple-scattered wavelength radiances to geophysical variables are discussed and results of profile inversions of Nimbus 4 backscatter ultraviolet data for coincident ground-truth measurements with and without multiple scattering are presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Interactive Workshop on Interpretation of Remotely Sensed Data; May 23-25, 1979; Williamsburg, VA
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The ground-based network that has been in existence for several decades is described. Attention is given to two basic questions, namely the way in which monthly satellite analyses compare with those from the ground-based network and the way in which the trends from the satellite and ground-based data compare. Synoptic analyses of total ozone for December 1970 are compared with a subjective analysis of the ground-based network and an objective backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) analysis. It is found that the BUV analysis is the more consistent of the two. Considering monthly analyses for September 1970, satellite and ground-based data are found to agree quite well. In considering the question of trend determination by the ground-based versus the satellite systems, attention is given to the sources of error in the satellite system. The principal sources of error in BUV analysis are thought to be calibration drift with time and the fact that, over the lifetime of the satellite spacecraft, power limitations result in a decrease in the number of data points per month, possibly with significant gaps in the coverage.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: Quadrennial International Ozone Symposium; August 4-9, 1980; Boulder, CO
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument was launched on the Nimbus 7 satellite in October 1978. This instrument is designed to measure spatial variations in the total ozone field. The employed technique is an extension of the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) total ozone method. The TOMS instrument has an improved capability for detailed monitoring of total ozone. The obtained data appear to contain information about dynamical processes in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Investigations are being conducted to determine qualitatively the conditions, if any, where total ozone fails as a predictor for tropopause height. Quantitative relations between the dynamic parameters and total ozone are also being studied.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: Quadrennial International Ozone Symposium; August 4-9, 1980; Boulder, CO
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: It is noted that for the years 1970-1972 global ozone may be calculated by using extrapolated values for polar night regions and then deriving direct daily averages. After 1972, regions larger than the polar night often lack data, increasing the error of extrapolation. It is shown that problems of this type can be overcome by using zonal averages, calculating the annual wave through harmonic analysis, and subtracting the annual wave so derived. Linear fits can then be employed to obtain long-term zonal changes and yearly zonal averages. Global results can be derived in the form of an area-weighted average of the zonal results. It is pointed out that no values need be assumed for ozone when data are lacking. The uncertainty from this procedure is estimated at + or - 0.4% of the yearly average. However, other uncertainties in the backscatter ultraviolet experiment may be larger.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: Quadrennial International Ozone Symposium; August 4-9, 1980; Boulder, CO
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A seven year data set which consists of both total ozone and ozone vertical profiles has been derived from the Nimbus-4 Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) experiment. The BUV experiment measures the earth's backscattered solar radiance at 12 wavelengths in the Hartley-Huggins band. The shortest 8 bands are used to determine the vertical ozone profile. The longest four bands are used to determine the total ozone. The present investigation provides a review of the major characteristics of the instrument performance and ozone results during the seven year period of the data set. Attention is given to the data coverage in time and space, the major areas of nonhomogeneous coverage, adjustments made to the basic instrument radiances, long-term trends in the radiances, rocket and balloon measurements, and problems associated with the validation of the satellite data set.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Atmospheric Radiation; June 16-18, 1981; Toronto; Canada
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Nimbus 4 Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) experiment data has been reprocessed to provide a near global data set covering the seven years from 1970 to 1977. The data set is the result of a three year effort by the Ozone Processing Team which included review and correction of the spacecraft ephemeris, instrument calibration, and processing algorithms. The accuracy of the resulting total ozone determinations compares well with that of ground based data. An important application of the global BUV data set is to use it in determining long term trends in global total ozone. However, in order to identify long term trends in ozone, it is necessary to eliminate first long-term drift in the instrument calibration. A follow on experiment, the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, (SBUV/TOMS), was flown on Nimbus 7 launched in October 1978. The SBUV provides information about both total ozone and vertical ozone profiles for a 200 km square field of view.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: Quadrennial International Ozone Symposium; August 4-9, 1980; Boulder, CO
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