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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 419 (2002), S. 215-223 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Anthropogenic aerosols are intricately linked to the climate system and to the hydrologic cycle. The net effect of aerosols is to cool the climate system by reflecting sunlight. Depending on their composition, aerosols can also absorb sunlight in the atmosphere, further cooling the surface but ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 369 (1994), S. 45-48 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The concentration of available CCNs depends on the cloud supersaturation (Sc), the aerosol size distribution and their chemical composition. A given cloud supersaturation activates (transforms into a cloud drop) hygroscopic particles larger than a critical radius11, rc (where rc (urn) = 0.0145 - ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Aspects of aerosol studies and remote sensing are reviewed. Aerosol scatters solar radiation before it reaches the surface and scatters and absorbs it again after it is reflected from the surface and before it reaches the satellite sensor. The effect is spectrally and spatially dependent. Therefore atmospheric aerosol (dust, smoke and air pollution particles) has a significant effect on remote sensing. Correction for the aerosol effect was never achieved on an operational basis though several case studies were demonstrated. Correction can be done in a direct way by deriving the aerosol loading from the image itself and correcting for it using the appropriate radiative transfer model or by an indirect way, by defining remote sensing functions that are less dependent on the aerosol loading. To some degree this was already achieved in global remote sensing of vegetation where a composite of several days of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) measurements, choosing the maximal value, was used instead of a single cloud screened value. The Atmospheric Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI) introduced recently for the NASA Earth Observing System EOS-MODIS is the most appropriate example of indirect correction, where the index is defined in such a way that the atmospheric effect in the blue spectral channel cancels to a large degree the atmospheric in the red channel in computations of a vegetation index. Atmospheric corrections can also use aerosol climatology and ground based instrumentation.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: CNES, Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing; p 7-19
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 9927-993
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A technique for deriving large-scale pollution parameters from NIR and visible satellite remote-sensing images obtained over land or water is described and demonstrated on AVHRR images. The method is based on comparison of the upward radiances on clear and hazy days and permits simultaneous determination of aerosol optical thickness with error Delta tau(a) = 0.08-0.15, particle size with error + or - 100-200 nm, and single-scattering albedo with error + or - 0.03 (for albedos near 1), all assuming accurate and stable satellite calibration and stable surface reflectance between the clear and hazy days. In the analysis of AVHRR images of smoke from a forest fire, good agreement was obtained between satellite and ground-based (sun-photometer) measurements of aerosol optical thickness, but the satellite particle sizes were systematically greater than those measured from the ground. The AVHRR single-scattering albedo agreed well with a Landsat albedo for the same smoke.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 9895-990
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: An algorithm for automatic atmospheric correction of satellite imagery of the earth's surface is proposed which is applicable to low-resolution and high-resolution imagery of land areas. The algorithm is based on the satellite image being corrected and on the climatology of the area, and it requires that some pixels in the image correspond to dense dark vegetation as the surface cover. The algorithm is sensitive to the assumed reflectance of the dense dark vegetation, and the accuracy of the corrected surface reflectance is expected to be + or - 0.01. Using the method, aerosol optical thicknesses were derived from clear and hazy Landsat MSS images in the Washington, D.C. and Chesapeake Bay region, and the results are found to agree well with simultaneous sunphotometer ground measurements.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 9; 1357-138
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Measurements of the atmospheric effect on the spectral signature of surface cover were conducted during hazy conditions over the Chesapeake Bay and its eastern shore. In the experiment the upward radiance was measured by an airborne scanning radiometer in nine spectral bands between 465 and 773 nm, above and below the haze layer. Simultaneous measurements of the aerosol optical thickness and its vertical distribution were conducted. The results of the measurements are used to study the spectral dependence of the atmospheric effect on remote sensing of water bodies and vegetated fields (forest, corn field, and pasture), and to verify theoretical predictions. It is suggested that the radiances over dark areas (e.g., water in the near IR and forest in the visible) can be used to derive the aerosol optical thickness as is done over oceans with the CZCS satellite images. Combined with climatological information, the derived optical thickness can be used to perform corrections of the atmospheric effect. Examples of the derivation of the aerosol optical thickness and correction of the upward radiances are given.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); 26; 441-450
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  • 8
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: In order to study the spectral atmospheric effect on remote sensing, measurements of the spectral signature of surface cover were conducted during hazy conditions. Simultaneous measurements of the aerosol optical thickness and its vertical distribution were carried out. The upward radiance in high flight were also simulated by radiative transfer computations, and the results were compared with the measurements. It is suggested that the radiances over dark areas can be used to derive the aerosol optical thickness. Combined with climatological information, the derived optical thickness can be used to perform corrections of the atmospheric effect.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 7; 11, 1
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth less than 0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert, and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an urban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Applied Optics (ISSN 0003-6935); 30; 3047-305
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A method based on remote sensing of one emitted product - particulates is developed for the global assessment of trace gases and particulates emission from tropical biomass burning. According to the method, the detected mass of emitted particulates is converted into a mass of emitted trace gases using published relations between the emitted particulates and trace gases for the flaming and smoldering phases. Through an analysis of the 1987 burning season in Brazil during the three months of the dry season, it is shown that there are up to 8000 fires a day each contributing 4500 tons of CO(2), 750 tons of CO, and 26 tons of CH(4) to the atmosphere. A comparison to the estimates of global emissions is also presented.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
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