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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Aerosols may affect climate through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation and, in the case of large dust particles, by interacting with thermal radiation. But whether atmospheric temperature responds significantly to such forcing has not been determined; feedback mechanisms could ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: This paper discusses the effects of non-Lambertian reflection from a homogeneous surface on remote sensing of the surface reflectance and vegetation index from a satellite. Remote measurement of the surface characteristics is perturbed by atmospheric scattering of sun light. This scattering tends to smooth the angular dependence of non-Lambertian surface reflectances, an effect that is not present in the case of Lambertian surfaces. This effect is calculated to test the validity of a Lambertian assumption used in remote sensing. For the three types of vegetations considered in this study, the assumption of Lambertian surface can be used satisfactorily in the derivation of surface reflectance from remotely measured radiance for a view angle outside the backscattering region. Within the backscattering region, however, the use of the assumption can result in a considerable error in the derived surface reflectance. Accuracy also deteriorates with increasing solar zenith angle. The angular distribution of the surface reflectance derived from remote measurements is smoother than that at the surface. The effect of surface non-Lambertianity on remote sensing of vegetation index is very weak. Since the effect is similiar in the visible and near infrared part of the solar spectrum for the vegetations treated in this study, it is canceled in deriving the vegetation index. The effect of the diffuse skylight on surface reflectance measurements at ground level is also discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); GE-24; 699-708
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  • 3
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: This paper reviews the atmospheric effects on remote sensing of surface reflectance. The scattering and absorption of sunlight by atmospheric molecules and aerosols affects the quality of images of the surface remotely sensed from satellites and aircrafts. The concentration and characteristics of the atmospheric aerosols vary from place to place and vary with time. The effect of atmospheric aerosols on the upward radiance depends on their optical thickness, scattering phase function and absorption. These parameters result from the aerosol concentration, composition, and the relative humidity. For high resolution images the aerosol scale height is also of importance. The radiative transfer theory that predicts the atmospheric radiances for a given surface and atmosphere is a well established theory for the case of uniform surfaces (or low resolution data). Some radiative transfer models exist for nonuniform surfaces and others are being developed. Recent field experiment and laboratory simulation data confirm the need for these models and can be used for their testing. It is shown that the atmospheric effect reduces the apparent resolution of satellite imagery and causes errors in the classification of surface fields. Suggestions for correction procedures are given. Such corrections can be based on ground observations, on satellite radiances above dark areas, or on climatologic information, depending on the accuracy of the corrections needed. The chosen correction algorithm depends also on the image resolution and the specific remote sensing application.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Remote sensing of aerosol optical thickness from space is difficult over continental surfaces. There are two retrieval algorithms, one based on the use of dark targets and a second based on contrast reduction between selected pixels. Improvements in the contrast reduction method are reported. A procedure is developed for using the satellite image to evaluate whether conditions for applying the structure method are met. The theoretical background is discussed, and the usefulness of the structure functions is demonstrated. The method is applied to NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery where simultaneous ground measurements are used for validation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1474-1477.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A method for calibrating satellite sensors (such as the AVHRR visible and NIR bands) is proposed by which the sensors are calibrated using well-known physical characteristics of the atmosphere, ocean, and deserts, as well as the digital satellite imagery. The approach, independent of ground support, used the following three phenomena: molecular scattering over the ocean for absolute visible band calibration; ocean glint, to transfer the calibration from the visible band to the NIR band; and desert reflectance to monitor, independently, the stability of the visible and NIR bands. The method was applied to NOAA-7, -9, and -11 sensors. The results of the ocean and the desert calibration methods were found to differ in the brightness range and the spectral response of the radiance source (molecular scattering over the ocean versus the desert reflectance).
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 14; 1; p. 21-52.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Results are presented on measurements of the trace gas and particulate matter emissions due to biomass burning during deforestation and grassland fires in South America, conducted as part of the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas in September 1989. Field observations by an instrumented aircraft were used to estimate concentrations of O3, CO2, CO, CH4, and particulate matter. Fires were observed from satellite imagery, and the smoke optical thickness, particle size, and profiles of the extinction coefficient were measured from the aircraft and from the ground. Four smoke plumes were sampled, three vertical profiles were measured, and extensive ground measurements of smoke optical characteristics were carried out for different smoke types. The simultaneous measurements of the trace gases, smoke particles, and the distribution of fires were used to correlate biomass burning with the elevated levels of ozone.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D13,; 14
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Theoretical two-dimensional and three-dimensional solutions to the radiative-transfer equation have been applied to the earth-atmosphere system. A field experiment was conducted to test this theory. In the experiment the upward radiance was measured above and below a haze layer during simultaneous measurements of the haze characteristics. The measurements were conducted at a narrow near-IR channel (773 + or - 22 nm) which represents the visible and near-IR spectral region. The aerosol vertical optical thickness at eight wavelengths, as well as the vertical and horizontal profiles of the scattering coefficient, the temperature, and dew point were measured at several locations. These measurements quantified the vertical and spatial structure of the atmospheric haze and the atmospheric radiation. The result was a well-defined radiative-transfer experiment. The experimental data set is used to quantify the haze effect on upward radiance, including the adjacency effect (the effect of a bright area on the upward radiance measured above a dark adjacent area), and to test radiative-transfer models for a plane-parallel atmosphere above a nonuniform surface. A comparison is given between the theoretical prediction of upward radiance above the haze and the measurement. Agreement between theory and the experiment is discussed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 43; 1135-115
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: An effort is made to estimate the visibility of the patterns on the nucleus of Comet Halley from the Giotto spacecraft through the comet's dusty coma. The visibility computation is based on the theory of contrast reduction by a scattering and absorbing medium (a planetary atmosphere). It is shown that some details may be seen on the surface of the cometary nucleus even for an optical thickness as high as 2. It is noted that the surprisingly large apparent contrast for such large optical thicknesses can be explained by the strong forward scattering by the dust.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 64; 20-26
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Previous attempts to explain the effect of aerosols on satellite measurements of surface properties for the visible and near-infrared spectrum have emphasized the amount of aerosols without consideration of their absorption properties. In order to estimate the importance of absorption, the radiances of the sunlight scattered from models of the earth-atmosphere system are computed as functions of the aerosol optical thickness and absorption. The absorption effect is small where the surface reflectance is weak, but is important for strong reflectance. These effects on classification of surface features, measuring vegetation index, and measuring surface reflectance are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892); GE-23; 625-633
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The atmospheric effect on the upward radiance emerging from the atmosphere above a nonuniform surface results in a reduction of the separability between the surface classes by broadening the radiance probability distribution of each class, while narrowing the total radiance range. The atmospheric modulation transfer function (MTF) is used in Fourier transform analyses to simulate the atmospheric effect on the imagery of a nonuniform surface and to demonstrate the atmospheric effect on separability of field classes.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Remote Sensing of Environment (ISSN 0034-4257); 18; 21-34
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