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  • 1
    Call number: MOP Per 763/DM(52)
    In: Report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Series Statement: Report / International Meteorological Institute, Stockholm DM-52
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In order to compare wind speed estimates from the Geosat altimeter and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 25 colocated passes, within 2 hours of each other, were selected and the SSM/I estimates of wind speed and atmospheric parameters extracted along the Geosat track. Both instruments and their algorithms are described. A statistical comparison of wind speed estimates is presented and the effects of the atmospheric parameters from Geosat are analyzed. Quasi-simultaneous measurements by Geosat and SSM/I, along a Geosat track in the North-East Pacific, are also presented.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Washington Univ., Microwave Radiometer Studies of Atmospheric Water Over the Oceans, Volume 2; p 57-61
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In HEXOS, a programme of coordinated laboratory, field and model studies, an international group of participants has extended the range of measurements of evaporation from the sea and has investigated the role of droplets in the transfer of water to the atmosphere. Predictions of a rapid rise in the evaporation coefficient at wind speeds above 15 m s-1 have not been substantiated. Wind stress measurements showed a relationship with wave age. New methods were developed for coping with flow distortion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Boundary layer meteorology 18 (1980), S. 107-127 
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This article reviews the available data, measurement techniques, and present understanding of the millimeter thick aqueous thermal boundary layer. A temperature difference between the surface and lower strata, δT, of the order of a few tenths to −1 °C have been observed. Techniques ranging from miniature mercury thermometers and electrical point sensors to optical interferometry and infrared radiometry have been employed. Many processes influence the temperature structure in this thin boundary layer. Among them are: the net upward heat flux due to evaporation and sensible heat transfer; infrared and solar radiation; and the turbulence near the interface due to wind mixing, wave breaking and current shear. Presence of solute and surface-active materials stimulate or dampen these mixing processes thereby influencing boundary-layer thickness and temperature structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Turbulent fluxes have been measured in the atmospheric surface layer from a boom extending upwind from the Dutch offshore research platform Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN) during HEXMAX (Humidity Exchange over the Sea Main Experiment) in October–November, 1986. We started out to study eddy flux of water vapour, but discrepancies among simultaneous measurements made with three different anemometers led us to develop methods to correct eddy correlation measurements of wind stress for flow distortion by nearby objects. We then found excellent agreement among the corrected wind stress data sets from the three anemometers on the MPN boom and with eddy correlation measurements from a mast on a tripod. Inertial-dissipation techniques gave reliable estimates of wind stress from turbulence spectra, both at MPN and at a nearby ship. The data cover a range of wave ages and the results yield new insights into the variation of sea surface wind stress with sea state; two alternative formulas are given for the nondimensional surface roughness as a function of wave age.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Turbulent fluxes have been measured in the atmospheric surface layer from a boom extending upwind from the Dutch offshore research platform Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN) during HEXMAX (Humidity Exchange over the Sea Main Experiment) in October–November, 1986. We started out to study eddy flux of water vapour, but discrepancies among simultaneous measurements made with three different anemometers led us to develop methods to correct eddy correlation measurements of wind stress for flow distortion by nearby objects. We then found excellent agreement among the corrected wind stress data sets from the three anemometers on the MPN boom and with eddy correlation measurements from a mast on a tripod. Inertial-dissipation techniques gave reliable estimates of wind stress from turbulence spectra, both at MPN and at a nearby ship. The data cover a range of wave ages and the results yield new insights into the variation of sea surface wind stress with sea state; two alternative formulas are given for the nondimensional surface roughness as a function of wave age.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Since Seasat carried the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) into space, shortly followed by the SMMR on Nimbus 7, a new type of data source on atmospheric water vapor and other meteorological parameters has been available for analysis of weather systems over the ocean. Since 1987, the Scanning Multichannel Microwave/Imager (SMM/I) has provided similar data. A collection of work using this data is presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-190342 , NAS 1.26:190342
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: For the present preliminary analysis of oceanic rainfall statistics, global oceanic SSM/I data were simply scanned for pixels which exhibited a 37 GHz polarization difference (vertically polarized brightness temperatures minus horizontally polarized brightness temperatures) of less than 15 K. Such a low polarization difference over the open ocean is a completely unambiguous indication of moderate to intense precipitation. Co-located brightness temperatures from all seven channels of the SSM/I were saved for each pixel so identified. Bad scans and geographically mislocated block of data were objectively identified and removed from the resulting data base. We collected global oceanic rainfall data for two time periods, each one month in length. The first period (20 July-19 August 1987) coincides with the peak of the Northern Hemisphere summer. The second period (13 January-12 February 1988) coincides with the Northern Hemisphere winter.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Washington Univ., Microwave Radiometer Studies of Atmospheric Water Over the Oceans, Volume 2; p 62-65
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: For the present preliminary analysis of oceanic rainfall statistics, global oceanic SSM/I data were simply scanned for pixels which exhibited a 37 GHz polarization difference (vertically polarized brightness temperatures minus horizontally polarized brightness temperatures) of less than 15 K. Such a low polarization difference over the open ocean is a completely unambiguous indication of moderate to intense precipitation. Co-located brightness temperatures from all seven channels of the SSM/I were saved for each pixel so identified. Bad scans and geographically mislocated block of data were objectively identified and removed from the resulting data base. We collected global oceanic rainfall data for two time periods, each one month in length. The first period (20 July-19 August 1987) coincides with the peak of the Northern Hemisphere summer. The second period (13 January-12 February 1988) coincides with the Northern Hemisphere winter.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: In: Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography, 6th, Atlanta, GA, Jan. 5-10, 1992, Preprints (A93-36051 14-47); p. 282-285.
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Recent work concerning the use of microwave radiometers in space to provide views of the water content of clouds is reported. Recently, theoretical algorithms were refined and the sampling by microwave radiometers for polar orbiting satellite became more commensurate in resolution and coverage with the scale of the meteorological phenomena. Parameters available from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) include total integrated water vapor (kg/sq m), integrated cloud liquid water (kg/sq m), rain rate (mm/hr), and an index for the presence and concentration of large ice particles; this so called scattering index can also be converted to a rain rate, although conversion is still rather uncertain. The hydrologic aspects of climatically important cloud systems on the Earth such as subtropical stratus decks, tropical convection, and midlatitude and polar cyclone can thus be monitored with the SSM/I parameters. The diagnostic as well as prognostic potential of these satellite derived water content properties of cloud systems are also discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: ESA, Environment Observation and Climate Modelling Through International Space Projects. Volume 1: Remote Sensing for Global Change, Climate Change and Atmosphere and Ocean Forecasting; p 163-168
    Format: text
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