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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Synthesis of results from several Arctic and boreal research programmes provides evidence for the strong role of high-latitude ecosystems in the climate system. Average surface air temperature has increased 0.3 °C per decade during the twentieth century in the western North American Arctic and boreal forest zones. Precipitation has also increased, but changes in soil moisture are uncertain. Disturbance rates have increased in the boreal forest; for example, there has been a doubling of the area burned in North America in the past 20 years. The disturbance regime in tundra may not have changed. Tundra has a 3–6-fold higher winter albedo than boreal forest, but summer albedo and energy partitioning differ more strongly among ecosystems within either tundra or boreal forest than between these two biomes. This indicates a need to improve our understanding of vegetation dynamics within, as well as between, biomes. If regional surface warming were to continue, changes in albedo and energy absorption would likely act as a positive feedback to regional warming due to earlier melting of snow and, over the long term, the northward movement of treeline. Surface drying and a change in dominance from mosses to vascular plants would also enhance sensible heat flux and regional warming in tundra. In the boreal forest of western North America, deciduous forests have twice the albedo of conifer forests in both winter and summer, 50–80% higher evapotranspiration, and therefore only 30–50% of the sensible heat flux of conifers in summer. Therefore, a warming-induced increase in fire frequency that increased the proportion of deciduous forests in the landscape, would act as a negative feedback to regional warming.Changes in thermokarst and the aerial extent of wetlands, lakes, and ponds would alter high-latitude methane flux. There is currently a wide discrepancy among estimates of the size and direction of CO2 flux between high-latitude ecosystems and the atmosphere. These discrepancies relate more strongly to the approach and assumptions for extrapolation than to inconsistencies in the underlying data. Inverse modelling from atmospheric CO2 concentrations suggests that high latitudes are neutral or net sinks for atmospheric CO2, whereas field measurements suggest that high latitudes are neutral or a net CO2 source. Both approaches rely on assumptions that are difficult to verify. The most parsimonious explanation of the available data is that drying in tundra and disturbance in boreal forest enhance CO2 efflux. Nevertheless, many areas of both tundra and boreal forests remain net sinks due to regional variation in climate and local variation in topographically determined soil moisture. Improved understanding of the role of high-latitude ecosystems in the climate system requires a concerted research effort that focuses on geographical variation in the processes controlling land–atmosphere exchange, species composition, and ecosystem structure. Future studies must be conducted over a long enough time-period to detect and quantify ecosystem feedbacks.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: To reconcile observations of decomposition rates, carbon inventories, and net primary production (NPP), we estimated long-term averages for C exchange in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba. Soil drainage as defined by water table, moss cover, and permafrost dynamics, is the dominant control on direct fire emissions. In upland forests, an average of about 10–30% of annual NPP was likely consumed by fire over the past 6500 years since these landforms and ecosystems were established. This long-term, average fire emission is much larger than has been accounted for in global C cycle models and may forecast an increase in fire activity for this region. While over decadal to century times these boreal forests may be acting as slight net sinks for C from the atmosphere to land, periods of drought and severe fire activity may result in net sources of C from these systems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A hydrodynamic/electromagnetic model was developed to explain and quantify the relationship between the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observed signatures and the bottom topography of the ocean in the English Channel region of the North Sea. The model uses environmental data and radar system parameters as inputs and predicts SAR-observed backscatter changes over topographic changes in the ocean floor. The model results compare favorably with the actual SEASAT SAR observed backscatter values. The developed model is valid for only relatively shallow water areas (i.e., less than 50 meters in depth) and suggests that for bottom features to be visible on SAR imagery, a moderate to high velocity current and a moderate wind must be present.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Frontiers of Remote Sensing of the Oceans and Troposphere from Air and Space Platforms; p 415-430
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Absolute calibration of a digital L-band SAR system to an accuracy of better than 3 dB has been verified. This was accomplished with a calibration signal generator that produces the phase history of a point target. This signal relates calibration values to various SAR data sets. Values of radar cross-section (RCS) of reference reflectors were obtained using a derived calibration relationship for the L-band channel on the ERIM/CCRS X-C-L SAR system. Calibrated RCS values were compared to known RCS values of each reference reflector for verification and to obtain an error estimate. The calibration was based on the radar response to 21 calibrated reference reflectors.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: This study investigated the capability of a spaceborne, imaging radar system to detect subtle changes in the propagation characteristics of ocean wave systems. Specifically, an evolving surface gravity wave system emanating from Hurricane Ella and propagating toward Cape Hatteras, NC, formed the basis of this investigation. This wave system was successfully imaged by the Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) during revolution 974 on September 3, 1978. Estimates of the dominant wavelength and direction of the ocean waves were derived from the SAR data by using optical Fourier transforms. Environmental data of the test area, which included the surface velocity vector within the Gulf Stream, the location of Hurricane Ella, and local bathymetric information, were used in conjunction with the SAR data to form the basis of this comparative study. Favorable agreement was found between wave rays calculated by utilizing theoretical wave-current and wave-topographic interactions and SAR observed dominant wavelength and direction changes across the Gulf Stream and continental shelf.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 88; May 20
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  • 6
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Refraction of gravity waves in the coastal area off Cape Hatteras, NC as documented by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery from Seasat orbit 974 (collected on September 3, 1978) is discussed. An analysis of optical Fourier transforms (OFTs) from more than 70 geographical positions yields estimates of wavelength and wave direction for each position. In addition, independent estimates of the same two quantities are calculated using two simple theoretical wave-refraction models. The OFT results are then compared with the theoretical results. A statistical analysis shows a significant degree of linear correlation between the data sets. This is considered to indicate that the Seasat SAR produces imagery whose clarity is sufficient to show the refraction of gravity waves in shallow water.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne virus that affects livestock and humans in Africa. Landsat TM data are shown to be effective in identifying dambos, intermittently flooded areas that are potential mosquite breeding sites, in an area north of Nairobi, Kenya. Positive results were obtained from a limited test of flood detection in dambos with airborne high resolution L, C, and X band multipolarization SAR imagery. L and C bands were effective in detecting flooded dambos, but LHH was by far the best channel for discrimination between flooded and nonflooded sites in both sedge and short-grass environments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a combined passive and active remote sensing program for monitoring the location and condition of RVF vector habitats, thus making future control of the disease more promising.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Remote Sensing of Environment (ISSN 0034-4257); 40; 3, Ju; 185-196
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A calibration procedure for digital aircraft SAR imagery is presented. Techniques to utilize internal and external calibration references are discussed. Examples of calibrated intensity scans from an oceanographic test site are presented. The relationship of the aircraft SAR calibration procedure to future spaceborne SAR systems is discussed.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Information obtained from remotely sensed imagery which is potentially useful to hydrocarbon resource development is discussed in this paper. Oceanic phenomena presented include surface gravity waves, detection of bathymetric features, and deep ocean internal waves. Techniques used to extract data are presented along with pertinent examples.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 112 (2007): G02029, doi:10.1029/2006JG000380.
    Description: Wildfire is a common occurrence in ecosystems of northern high latitudes, and changes in the fire regime of this region have consequences for carbon feedbacks to the climate system. To improve our understanding of how wildfire influences carbon dynamics of this region, we used the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage north of 45°N from the start of spatially explicit historically recorded fire records in the twentieth century through 2002, and evaluated the role of fire in the carbon dynamics of the region within the context of ecosystem responses to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. Our analysis indicates that fire plays an important role in interannual and decadal scale variation of source/sink relationships of northern terrestrial ecosystems and also suggests that atmospheric CO2 may be important to consider in addition to changes in climate and fire disturbance. There are substantial uncertainties in the effects of fire on carbon storage in our simulations. These uncertainties are associated with sparse fire data for northern Eurasia, uncertainty in estimating carbon consumption, and difficulty in verifying assumptions about the representation of fires that occurred prior to the start of the historical fire record. To improve the ability to better predict how fire will influence carbon storage of this region in the future, new analyses of the retrospective role of fire in the carbon dynamics of northern high latitudes should address these uncertainties.
    Description: Funding for this study was provided by grants from the National Science Foundation Biocomplexity Program (ATM-0120468) and Office of Polar Programs (OPP-0531047 and OPP- 0327664); the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Land Cover Land Use Change Program (NAF-11142) and North America Carbon Program (NNG05GD25G); the Bonanza Creek LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) Program (funded jointly by NSF grant DEB-0423442 and USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station grant PNW01- JV11261952-231); and the U.S. Geological Survey.
    Keywords: Fire emissions ; Ecosystem modeling ; Boreal carbon dynamics
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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