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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of the circulation in the eastern South Pacific (ESP) Ocean, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from the productive shelves to the open ocean. Some of these eddies exhibit subsurface hypoxic or suboxic conditions and may serve as important hotspots for nitrogen loss, but little is known about oxygen consumption rates and nitrogen transformation processes associated with these eddies. In the austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a suboxic (〈 2 µmol kg−1 of O2), subsurface layer (200–400 m) was detected  ∼  900 km off the Chilean shore (30° S, 81° W). The core of the eddy's suboxic layer had a temperature-salinity signature characteristic of Equatorial Subsurface Water (ESSW) that at this latitude is normally restricted to an area near the coast. Measurements of nitrogen species within the eddy revealed undersaturation (below 44 %) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrite accumulation (〉 0.5 µM), suggesting that active denitrification occurred in this water mass. Using satellite altimetry, we were able to track the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). Field studies conducted in Chilean shelf waters close to the time of eddy formation provided estimates of initial O2 and N2O concentrations of the ESSW source water in the eddy. By the time of its offshore sighting, concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eddy were lower than concentrations in surrounding water and “source water” on the shelf, indicating that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L−1 d−1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L−1 d−1. These results show that mesoscale eddies affect open-ocean biogeochemistry in the ESP not only by transporting physical and chemical properties from the coast to the ocean interior but also during advection, local biological consumption of oxygen within an eddy further generates conditions favorable to denitrification and loss of fixed nitrogen from the system.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © John Wiley & Sons, 2009. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of John Wiley & Sons for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Ecology 30 (2009): 133-150, doi:10.1111/j.1439-0485.2009.00288.x.
    Description: Climate change will alter turbulence intensity, motivating greater attention to mechanisms of turbulence effects on organisms. Many analytic and analog models used to simulate and assess effects of turbulence on plankton rely on a one-dimensional simplification of the dissipative scales of turbulence, i.e., simple, steady, uniaxial shears, as produced in Couette vessels. There shear rates are constant and spatially uniform, and hence so is vorticity. Studies in such Couette flows have greatly informed, spotlighting stable orientations of nonspherical particles and predictable, periodic, rotational motions of steadily sheared particles in Jeffery orbits that steepen concentration gradients around nutrient-absorbing phytoplankton and other chemically (re)active particles. Over the last decade, however, turbulence research within fluid dynamics has focused on the structure of dissipative vortices in space and time and on spatially and temporally varying 2 vorticity fields in particular. Because steadily and spatially uniformly sheared flows are exceptional, so therefore are stable orientations for particles in turbulent flows. Vorticity gradients, finite net diffusion of vorticity and small radii of curvature of streamlines are ubiquitous features of turbulent vortices at dissipation scales that are explicitly excluded from simple, steady Couette flows. All of these flow components contribute instabilities that cause rotational motions of particles and so are important to simulate in future laboratory devices designed to assess effects of turbulence on nutrient uptake, particle coagulation and predatorprey encounter in the plankton. The Burgers vortex retains these signature features of turbulence and provides a simplified “cartoon” of vortex structure and dynamics that nevertheless obeys the Navier-Stokes equations. Moreover, this idealization closely resembles many dissipative vortices observed in both the laboratory and the field as well as in direct numerical simulations of turbulence. It is simple enough to allow both simulation in numerical models and fabrication of analog devices that selectively reproduce its features. Exercise of such numerical and analog models promises additional insights into mechanisms of turbulence effects on passive trajectories and local accumulations of both living and nonliving particles, into solute exchange with living and nonliving particles and into more subtle influences on sensory processes and swimming trajectories of plankton, including demersal organisms and settling larvae in turbulent bottom boundary layers. The literature on biological consequences of vortical turbulence has focused primarily on the smallest, Kolmogorov-scale vortices of length scale η. Theoretical dissipation spectra and direct numerical simulation, however, indicate that typical dissipative vortices with radii of 7η to 8η, peak azimuthal speeds of order 1 cm s-1 and lifetimes of order 10 s as a minimum (and much longer for moderate pelagic turbulence intensities) deserve new attention in studies of biological effects of turbulence.
    Description: This research was supported by collaborative U.S. National Science Foundation grant (OCE- 0724744) to Jumars and Karp-Boss.
    Keywords: Plankton ; Shear ; Turbulence ; Vortex ; Vorticity
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: The North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) is an interdisciplinary investigation to improve understanding of Earth's ocean ecosystem-aerosol-cloud system. Specific overarching science objectives for NAAMES are to (1) characterize plankton ecosystem properties during primary phases of the annual cycle and their dependence on environmental forcings, (2)determine how these phases interact to recreate each year the conditions for an annual plankton bloom, and (3) resolve how remote marine aerosols and boundary layer clouds are influenced by plankton ecosystems. Four NAAMES field campaigns were conducted in the western subarctic Atlantic between November 2015 and April 2018, with each campaign targeting specific seasonal events in the annual plankton cycle. A broad diversity of measurements were collected during each campaign, including ship, aircraft, autonomous float and drifter, and satellite observations. Here, we present an overview of NAAMES science motives, experimental design, and measurements. We then briefly describe conditions and accomplishments during each of the four field campaigns and provide information on how to access NAAMES data. The intent of this manuscript is to familiarize the broad scientific community with NAAMES and to provide a common reference overview of the project for upcoming publications.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology; Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN67435 , Frontiers in Marine Science; 6; 122
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: In this paper we review on the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles, in general, and plankton, in particular, in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-micron to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and composition of plankton, provide data necessary to constrain and improve ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and forecast changes in marine ecosystems in light of climate change. In this paper we begin by providing the motivation for plankton observations, quantification and diversity qualification on a global scale. We then expand on the state-of-the-art, detailing a variety of relevant and (mostly) mature technologies and measurements, including bulk measurements of plankton, pigment composition, uses of genomic, optical, acoustical methods and analysis using particles counters, flow cytometers and quantitative imaging devices. We follow by highlighting the requirements necessary for a plankton observing system, the approach to achieve it and associated challenges. We conclude with ranked action-item recommendations for the next ten years to move towards our vision of a holistic ocean-wide plankton observing system. Particularly, we suggest to begin with a demonstration project on a GO-SHIP line and/or a long-term observation site and expand from there ensuring that issues associated with methods, observation tools, data analysis, quality assessment and curation are addressed early in the implementation. Global coordination is key for the success of this vision and will bring new insights on processes associated with nutrient regeneration, ocean production, fisheries, and carbon sequestration.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2009-09-18
    Description: The role of fluid motion in delivery of nutrients to phytoplankton cells is a fundamental question in biological and chemical oceanography. In the study of mass transfer to phytoplankton, diatoms are of particular interest. They are non-motile, are often the most abundant components in aggregates and often form chains, so they are the ones expected to benefit most from enhancement of nutrient flux due to dissipating turbulence. Experimental data to test the contribution of advection to nutrient acquisition by phytoplankton are scarce, mainly because of the inability to visualize, record and thus imitate fluid motions in the vicinities of cells in natural flows. Laboratory experiments have most often used steady Couette flows to simulate the effects of turbulence on plankton. However, steady flow, producing spatially uniform shear, fails to capture the diffusion of momentum and vorticity, the essence of turbulence. Thus, numerical modelling plays an important role in the study of effects of fluid motion on diffusive and advective nutrient fluxes. In this paper we use the immersed boundary method to model the interaction of rigid and flexible diatom chains with the surrounding fluid and nutrients. We examine this interaction in two nutrient regimes, a uniform background concentration of nutrients, such as might be typical of an early spring bloom, and a contrasting scenario in which nutrients are supplied as small, randomly distributed pulses, as is more likely for oligotrophic seas and summer conditions in coastal and boreal seas. We also vary the length and flexibility of chains, as whether chains are straight or bent, rigid or flexible will affect their behaviour in the flow and hence their nutrient fluxes. The results of numerical experiments suggest that stiff chains consume more nutrients than solitary cells. Stiff chains also experience larger nutrient fluxes compared to flexible chains, and the nutrient uptake per cell increases with increasing stiffness of the chain, suggesting a major advantage of silica frustules in diatoms. © 2009 Copyright Cambridge University Press.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1120
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-7645
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 6
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2000-11-01
    Print ISSN: 0024-3590
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-5590
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-05-20
    Description: Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of the circulation in the eastern South Pacific (ESP) Ocean, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from the productive shelves to the open ocean. Some of these eddies exhibit subsurface hypoxic or suboxic conditions and may serve as important hotspots for nitrogen loss, but little is known about oxygen consumption rates and nitrogen transformation processes associated with these eddies. In the austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a suboxic (〈2µmolkg−1 of O2), subsurface layer (200–400m) was detected  ∼ 900km off the Chilean shore (30°S, 81°W). The core of the eddy's suboxic layer had a temperature-salinity signature characteristic of Equatorial Subsurface Water (ESSW) that at this latitude is normally restricted to an area near the coast. Measurements of nitrogen species within the eddy revealed undersaturation (below 44%) of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrite accumulation (〉0.5µM), suggesting that active denitrification occurred in this water mass. Using satellite altimetry, we were able to track the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1°S, 74.6°W). Field studies conducted in Chilean shelf waters close to the time of eddy formation provided estimates of initial O2 and N2O concentrations of the ESSW source water in the eddy. By the time of its offshore sighting, concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eddy were lower than concentrations in surrounding water and “source water” on the shelf, indicating that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44nmolL−1d−1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92nmolL−1d−1. These results show that mesoscale eddies affect open-ocean biogeochemistry in the ESP not only by transporting physical and chemical properties from the coast to the ocean interior but also during advection, local biological consumption of oxygen within an eddy further generates conditions favorable to denitrification and loss of fixed nitrogen from the system.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
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