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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: Ground-based measurements of the solar transmission and sky radiance in a horizontal plane through the Sun are taken in several geographical regions and aerosol types: dust in a desert transition zone in Israel, sulfate particles in Eastern and Western Europe, tropical aerosol in Brazil, and mixed continental/maritime aerosol in California. Stratospheric aerosol was introduced after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. Therefore measurements taken before the eruption are used to analyze the properties of tropospheric aerosol; measurements from 1992 are also used to detect the particle size and concentration of stratospheric aerosol. The measurements are used to retrieve the size distribution and the scattering phase function at large scattering angles of the undisturbed aerosol particles. The retrieved properties represent an average on the entire atmospheric column. A comparison between the retrieved phase function for a scattering angle of 120 deg, with phase function predicted from the retrieved size distribution, is used to test the assumption of particle homogeneity and sphericity in radiative transfer models (Mie theory). The effect was found to be small (20% +/- 15%). For the stratospheric aerosol (sulfates), as expected, the phase function was very well predicted using the Mie theory. A model with a power law distribution, based on the spectral dependence of the optical thickness, alpha, cannot estimate accurately the phase function (up to 50% error for lambda = 0.87 microns). Before the Pinatubo eruption the ratio between the volumes of sulfate and coarse particles was very well correlated with alpha. The Pinatubo stratospheric aerosol destroyed this correlation. The aerosol optical properties are compared with analysis of the size, shape, and composition of the individual particles by electron microscopy of in situ samples. The measured volume size distribution before the injection of stratospheric aerosol consistently show two modes, sulfate particles with r(sub m) less than 0.2 microns and coarse paritcles with r(sub m) greater than 0.7 microns. The 'window' in the tropospheric aerosol in this radius range was used to observe a stable stratospheric aerosol in 1992, with r(sub m) approximately 0.5 microns. A combination of such optical thickness and sky measurements can be used to assess the direct forcing and the climatic impact of aerosol. Systematic inversion for the key aerosol types (sulfates, smoke, dust, and maritime aerosol) of the size distribution and phase function can give the relationship between the aerosol physical and optical properties that can be used to compute the radiative forcing. This forcing can be validated in dedicated field experiments.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; D5; p. 10,341-10,356
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Spectral remote observations of dust properties from space and from the ground creates a powerful tool for determination of dust absorption of solar radiation with an unprecedented accuracy. Absorption is a key component in understanding dust impact on climate. We use Landsat spaceborne measurements at 0.47 to 2.2 microns over Senegal with ground based sunphotometers to find that Saharan dust absorption of solar radiation is two to four times smaller than in models. Though dust absorbs in the blue, almost no absorption was found for wavelengths greater 0.6 microns. The new finding increases by 50% recent estimated solar radiative forcing by dust and decreases the estimated dust heating of the lower troposphere. Dust transported from Asia shows slightly higher absorption probably due to the presence of black carbon from populated regions. Large scale application of this method to satellite data from the Earth Observing System can reduce significantly the uncertainty in the dust radiative effects.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-04-10
    Description: An intensive field campaign involving measurement of various aerosol physical, chemical, and radiative properties was conducted at Sde Boker in the Negev Desert of Israel, from 18 February to 15 March 1997. Nephelometer measurements gave average background scattering coefficient values of about 25 M/m at 550 nm wavelength, but strong dust events caused the value of this parameter to rise up to about 800 M/m Backscattering fractions did not depend on aerosol loading, and generally fell in the range of 0.1 to 0.25, comparable to values reported for marine and Arctic environments. Chemical analysis of the aerosol revealed that, in the coarse size range (2 - 10 micrometer equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD)), calcium (Ca) was by far the most abundant element followed by silicon (Si), both of which are indicators for mineral dust. In the fine size fraction (〈 2 micrometers EAD), sulfur (S) generally was the dominant element, except during high dust episodes when Ca and Si were again the most abundant. Furthermore, fine black carbon (BC) correlates with S, suggesting that they may have originated from the same sources or source regions. An indication of the short-term effect of aerosol loading on radiative forcing was provided by measurements of global and diffuse solar radiation, which showed that during high turbidity periods (strong dust events) almost all of the solar radiation reaching the area is scattered or absorbed.
    Keywords: Geophysics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Knowledge of baseline water use for irrigated crops in the U.S. Southwest is important for understanding how much water is consumed under normal farm management and to help manage scarce resources. Remote sensing of evapotranspiration (ET) is an effective way to gain that knowledge: multispectral data can provide synoptic and time-repetitive estimates of crop-specific water use, and could be especially useful for this arid region because of dominantly clear skies and minimal precipitation. Although multiple remote sensing ET approaches have been developed and tested, there is not consensus on which of them should be preferred because there are still few intercomparison studies within this environment. To help build the experience needed to gain consensus, a remote sensing study using three ET models was conducted over the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD). Aggregated ET was assessed for 137 wheat plots (winter/spring crop), 183 cotton plots (summer crop), and 225 alfalfa plots (year-round). The employed models were the Satellite-Based Energy Balance for Mapping Evapotranspiration with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), the Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB), and Vegetation Index ET for the US Southwest (VISW). Remote sensing data were principally Landsat 5, supplemented by Landsat 7, MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, and ASTER. Using district-wide model averages, seasonal use (excluding surface evaporation) was 742 mm (millimeters) for wheat, 983 mm for cotton, and 1427 mm for alfalfa. All three models produced similar daily ET for wheat, with 6-8 mm per day mid-season. Model estimates diverged for cotton and alfalfa sites. Considering ET over cotton, TSEB estimates were 9.5 mm per day, METRIC 6 mm per day, and VISW 8 mm per day. For alfalfa, the ET values from TSEB were 8.0 mm per day, METRIC 5 mm per day, and VISW 6 mm per day. Lack of local validation information unfortunately made it impossible to rank model performance. However, by averaging results from all of them, ET model outliers could be identified. They ranged from minus 10 percent to plus 18 percent, values that represent expected ET modeling discrepancies. Relative to the model average, standardized ET-estimators - potential ET (ET (sub 0)), FAO-56 ET, and USDA-SW gravimetric-ET - showed still greater deviations, up to 35 percent of annual crop water use for summer and year-round crops, suggesting that remote sensing of actual ET could lead to significantly improved estimates of crop water use. Results from this study highlight the need for conducting multi-model experiments during summer-months over sites with independent ground validation.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN65929 , Agronomy (e-ISSN 2073-4395); 8; 12; 278
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The ability of dust to absorb solar radiation and heat the atmosphere is one of the main uncertainties in climate modeling and the prediction of climate change. Dust absorption is not well known due to limitations of in situ measurements. New techniques to measure dust absorption are needed in order to assess the impact of dust on climate. Here we report two new independent remote sensing techniques that provide sensitive measurements of dust absorption. Both are based on remote sensing. One uses satellite spectral measurements, the second uses ground based sky measurements from the AERONET network. Both techniques demonstrate that Saharan dust absorption of solar radiation is several times smaller than the current international standards. Dust cooling of the earth system in the solar spectrum is therefore significantly stronger than recent calculations indicate. We shall also address the issue of the effects of dust non-sphericity on the aerosol optical properties.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting; 15-19 Dec. 2000; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The SSM/I (Spectral Sensor Microwave Imager) dataset is used to monitor surface wind speed and direction at four locations over the Eastern Mediterranean during December 1998 - January 1999. Time series of these data are compared to concurrent series of precipitation, surface temperature, humidity and winds at selected Israeli stations: Sde Dov (coastal), Bet Dagan (5 km. inland), Jerusalem (Judean Hills), Hafetz Haim (3 km. inland) and Sde Boker (central Negev). December 1998 and the beginning of January 1999 were dry in Israel, but significant precipitation was recorded at many stations during the second half of January (1999). SSM/I data show a surge in westerly surface winds west of Israel (32 N, 32.5 E) on 15 January, coinciding with the renewal of precipitation. We discuss the relevant circulation and pressure patterns during this transition in the context of the evolving meteorological conditions at the selected Israeli locations. The SSM/I dataset of near ocean surface winds, available for the last 12 years, is described. We analyze lagged correlation between these data and the Israeli station data and investigate possibility of predictive skill. Application of such relationships to short-term weather prediction would require real-time access to the SSM/I observations.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Mar. 2000; Lihron Yaacov; Israel
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Spectral remote observations of dust properties from space and from the ground create a powerful tool for determination of dust absorption of solar radiation with an unprecedented accuracy. Absorption is a key component in understanding dust impact on climate. We use Landsat space-borne measurements at 0.47 to 2.2 micrometer over Senegal with ground-based sunphotometers to find that Saharan dust absorption of solar radiation is two to four times smaller than in models. Though dust absorbs in the blue, almost no absorption was found for wavelengths greater than 0.6 micrometer. The new finding increases by 50% recent estimated solar radiative forcing by dust and decreases the estimated dust heating of the lower troposphere. Dust transported from Asia shows slightly higher absorption probably due to the presence of black carbon from populated regions. Large-scale application of this method to satellite data from the Earth Observing System can reduce significantly the uncertainty in the dust radiative effects.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: Aerosoll; 18-22 Jan. 1999; Meribel; France
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  • 8
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    In:  SPIE Conference on Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, GIS Applications, and Geology (Toulouse 2001) ; Year: 2002
    Publication Date: 2013-10-16
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: Remote Sensing, Vol. 10, Pages 419: Shortwave Radiation Affected by Agricultural Practices Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs10030419 Authors: Jerzy Cierniewski Jakub Ceglarek Arnon Karnieli Eyal Ben-Dor Sławomir Królewicz Cezary Kaźmierowski The albedo of bare soil depends on its organic matter, iron oxide, carbonate contents, and reflectance geometry, features considered stable over time, and also depends on salinity, moisture and roughness, which change dynamically due to agricultural practices. This paper deals with the quantitative estimation of the amount of shortwave radiation that could be reflected by air-dried bare soils in clear-sky conditions within arable lands in Israel throughout the year, assuming that they were shaped by a plough, a disk harrow, or a smoothing harrow. An area of bare soils was extracted from Landsat 8 images, within the contours of arable lands. The radiation reflected from the bare soils was calculated by equations predicting variations in their half-diurnal albedo as the solar zenith angle function. Accordingly, laboratory reflectance data of Israeli soil samples were used. The results clearly showed annual variation in the amount of short-wave radiation reflected from all bare soils within arable lands. The minimum radiation occurred in the winter, between the 1st and 70th day of the year (DOY), and the maximum was identified in the summer between 200th and 250th DOY. This could reach about 3–5 PJ/day and 16–23 PJ/day, respectively.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 10
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    American Physical Society (APS)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-30
    Description: Author(s): Aviv Karnieli and Ady Arie We introduce a novel formalism in which the paraxial coupled wave equations of the nonlinear optical sum-frequency generation process are shown to be equivalent to the Pauli equation describing the dynamics of a spin- 1 / 2 particle in a spatially varying magnetic field. This interpretation gives rise ... [Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 053901] Published Mon Jan 29, 2018
    Keywords: Nonlinear Dynamics, Fluid Dynamics, Classical Optics, etc.
    Print ISSN: 0031-9007
    Electronic ISSN: 1079-7114
    Topics: Physics
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