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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-9834
    Keywords: Cyperus papyrus ; Iris pseudacorus ; Israel ; Nuphar lutea ; Nymphaea alba ; wetland restoration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The draining of the Lake Hula and swamps, northern Israel, during the late 1950s resulted in the loss of a very diverse and rare ecosystem. Oxidation of the peat soil resulted in ground surface subsidence, while heavy autumn winds have eroded the dry peat. Moreover, agriculture on the peat soils is restricted, because of a nitrate surplus. Predictions that the sinking would continue and that more areas would go out of agricultural production led authorities to re-flood a portion of the Hula Valley in 1994. The aim of the present study was to monitor the spontaneous establishment of vegetation in the re-flooded area, the Agmon wetlands, and to reestablish some of the major plant species lost from the valley when Lake Hula was drained. Within the first two years, 74 plant species colonized the wetland spontaneously. Five out of 11 species designated for reintroduction were successfully established. Cyperus papyrus and Cynodon dactylon demonstrated sustainable potential for lake-shore stabilization. Cyperus papyrus was reintroduced from seedlings and rapidly became the dominant riparian species, while Cynodon dactylon established spontaneously. Re-introduced Nymphaea alba clones were established only in enclosures protected from grazing by the semi-aquatic mammal Myocastor coypu. Nuphar lutea and Iris pseudacorus showed better resistance to grazing. These results demonstrate a high potential for successful re-establishment of much of the original Hula swamp macrophytic vegetation by either spontaneous colonization by extant species from the surrounding areas or by introduction of locally extinct species. As such, there is a good chance that the associated faunal components of the former Lake Hula and swamps that have returned to the region since the Hula rehabilitation project commenced will continue to flourish.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4846
    Keywords: sol-gel glass ; phycobiliproteins ; biomaterial ; biosensor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Light transducing phycobiliproteins are encapsulated in optically transparent sol-gel matrices. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies are used to characterize the effect of the sol-gel encapsulation on the conformation and aggregation states of the three major phycobiliproteins present in phycobilisomes: phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin. It is found that the effects of sol-gel entrapment on the spectroscopic properties are significantly different for the three phycobiliproteins. The results indicate that phycoerythrin undergoes only minor change in its native structure when entrapped in sol-gel. However, significant changes in conformation and aggregation state occur when phycocyanin and allophycocyanin are entrapped in sol-gel matrices. A thin film of sol-gel encapsulated phycoerythrin is also coated on an optical fiber surface and strong fluorescence from the evanescent wave excitation is detected. The potential applications of sol-gel encapsulated phycobiliproteins in biosensors are discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: K-controllability ; LS-controllability ; m-accretive operators ; compact perturbations ; compact resolvents ; ranges of sums ; Leray-Schauder degree theory
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Some results are given involving the controllability of a nonlinear evolution equation of the formx′(t)+A(t,u(t))x(t)=B(t)u(t). The underlying space is a real Banach space with uniformly convex dual space. A method involving ranges of sums of two nonlinear operators is employed along with the Leray-Schauder degree theory to establish sufficient conditions for controllability. A result is also given characterizing a type of reachable sets of certain evolutions. Finally, the lack of exact controllability is shown for quite a large class of nonlinear evolutions with compact perturbationsB(t). The responses are actually straight-line segments emanating from the origin. However, several results herein can be extended to cover a variety of control problems with other known types of responses.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Keywords: bioavailability ; bush bean ; cadmium ; contamination ; heavy metal ; industrial waste ; mobility ; Phaseolus vulgaris ; sandy soil ; Savannah River Site ; soil ; thallium ; vanadium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A field study was conducted over a 30 mo period to examine movement of Cd, Tl, and V through the profile of a Coastal Plain soil (Typic Kandiudult) and the availability of these trace metals to bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants. The metals were applied to field plots as dissolved salts and mixed into the surface 7.5 cm. The greatest concentration of all three metals was observed in the surface soils, with a steep decrease occurring down to the 7.5 to 15 cm depth. Thallium was the most mobile of the three metals; approximately 15% of the applied Tl and 〈3% of the applied Cd and V moved below the surface 7.5-cm region during the 30-mo experiment. Extractable concentrations of all three metals in the surface soils decreased significantly (P ≤0.05) during the initial 18 mo after treatment. No further decrease occurred between 18 and 30 mo. The presence of Al- and Fe-oxides and small amounts of clay minerals and organic matter in this highly-weathered, low cation-exchange soil were likely responsible for the retention of the trace metals. Bioavailability, as measured by concentrations and total amounts of metals in root and aboveground tissues of plants, did not change significantly between 18 and 30 mo. These data suggest that bioavailability of Cd, Tl, and V decreased over time as a result of transformation of these elements into unavailable forms and not to leaching. These changes in bioavailability occurred soon after application, becoming negligible after 18 mo.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Hydroponic and rhizotron studies were conducted to determine the effect of V on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) biomass and mineral nutrition. In the hydroponic study, 6 mg V L−1 (as VOSO4) in the nutrient solution drastically altered soybean nutrition, and significantly reduced plant biomass. Vanadium accumulated in the roots but not in the aerial portions of the plants. The data support the hypothesis that tissue V and Ca contents are related with high concentrations of both elements in the roots, and low concentrations in the aerial portions of the plant. Analysis of data with the Diagnostic and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) identified Ca as deficient in aerial tissues. The changes in Ca concentrations induced by V treatment may also have antagonized the concentrations of others macronutrients, most notably K and Mg. DRIS also indicated that K, Mg, and Zn levels were relatively high. The rhizotron study, which dealt with bush beans grown in metal-treated soils, further showed that V was primarily concentrated in the roots of the plants, with very little accumulated in the aerial portions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) is used to precipitate radiocesium from high-level nuclear wastes. Processing of these wastes will intensify in the future thereby increasing the possibility of the accidental release of NaTPB into the environment. Two greenhouse pot experiments using loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings were conducted to evaluate the effects of NaTPB and one of its degradation by-products, diphenylboric acid (DPBA), on pine B nutrition and growth. The needle and root tissue concentrations of B were higher for NaTPB than DPBA treatments. Consequently, NaTPB but not DPBA had detrimental effects on plant growth. Seedlings that had significant yield detriments displayed typical B toxicity symptoms due to high-B stress. The distribution of B among the needles, stems and roots, expressed as percent of total B in the seedlings, remained relatively constant irrespective of the soil B level or B source. The peak of hot-water extractable soil B from the NaTPB treatments lagged about 20 days behind the DPBA treatments, suggesting a faster hydrolysis for the latter compound.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of Be and V on collards (Brassica oleracea, var. acephala L.). In the laboratory germination study, incremental increases in the Be concentrations of the growing medium induced a steady decline in the radicle length of seven-day-old collard seedling. Beryllium concentrations greater than or equal to 8 mg Be L−1 totally inhibited seed germination. The presence of V in the growing medium had no effect on collard germination; however, it had a profound effect on subsequent radicle elongation. Concentrations of V less than 1 mg V L−1 stimulated radicle elongation, while concentrations greater than or equal to 3 mg V L−1 caused severe toxicity. In the greenhouse study, Be toxicity was observed in collards grown in a Blanton sand (Grossarenic Paleudult) received treatments greater than or equal to 150 mg Be kg −1 (as BeSO4). Irrespective of treatment level, 97% of the Be taken up by the plants remained in the roots while only 3% was translocated to aboveground plant parts. Vanadium tissue concentrations and toxicity to collards varied with soil type. Additions as low as 80 mg V kg−1 to the Blanton sand significantly reduced collard biomass while additions as high as 100 mg V kg−1 to an Orangebury loamy sand (Typic Paleudult) had no effect on plant biomass. The differential response was attributed to greater accumulation of V by plants grown in the Blanton soil.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Aragonite particles dispersed in a bioresorbable polymer matrix are considered to be a good candidate for bone prosthesis materials. It is important to characterize the microstructure of synthetic aragonite used for biomedical applications, since the microstructure may influence its integration, resorption and replacement by bone. We studied late stages of aragonite growth, at an air–liquid interface, from a solution not doped with additives. Comparison was made between the types of synthetic aragonite microstructure and that of aragonite which is found in nature (mollusc shells, gallstones, Earth's crust). The microstructure of natural aragonite is unique to certain classes of living organisms and the understanding of its structure/function relationships may help to select the types of synthetic aragonite for specific biomedical applications. Three types of synthetic aragonite were observed based on grain size and grain morphology.
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