The objective of the research reported in this presentation is to develop computational techniques for the prediction of unsteady transitional flows associated with the rotor stator interaction in turbomachinery. Three low-Reynolds number turbulence models are incorporated in two unsteady Navier-Stokes codes (one is pressure based and the other is time marching with Runge-Kutta time stepping) and evaluated for accuracy in predicting the onset and the end of unsteady transitional patches due to wake passing. The best model is then used for modification and improvement for the leading edge effect. An existing steady Navier-Stokes code was modified to include pseudo-time stepping, which provided acceleration from 5 to 25 times that of the original code. A systematic validation procedure was implemented to assess the effects of the grid, artificial dissipation, physical, and the pseudo-time step for an accurate prediction of transitional flows resulting from the rotor-stator interaction. The ability of the Navier-Stokes code to predict the unsteady transitional flow on a turbomachinery blade is demonstrated. The unsteady pressure and velocity fields are in good agreement with the experimental data and the prediction from the Euler/boundary layer approach. The numerical solver was able to capture all zones (wake induced transitional strip, wake induced turbulent strip, calmed region, etc.) associated with wake induced transition in a compressor cascade. Another significant step is the assessment of k-epsilon turbulence models, including the leading edge modifications. Best results were obtained from the FLB model. The LB model predicted earlier inception of the transition and shorter transition length. Modification of the k-epsilon model was found to be essential for an accurate prediction of the unsteady transitional flow in a compressor cascade. The CH model failed to predict the unsteady transitional flow. Predicted boundary layer was turbulent from the leading edge, even with the modification of the k-epsilon model near the stagnation point. A comparison of the instantaneous shape factor, the skin friction coefficient, and the momentum thickness indicates that the Navier-Stokes predictions are reasonably good. Interaction between the upstream wake and stator wake results in shedding of unsteady vortices from the trailing edge and increased dissipation in the stator wake and, as a consequence, increased rate of decay of the stator wake. The procedure developed at Penn State should aid the designers of turbomachinery in allowing for the unsteady transitional flows due to rotor-stator interaction.
Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
Minnowbrook II 1997 Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines; 369-384; NASA/CP-1998-206958