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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-01-24
    Description: In recent years, some major industries in transition economies, such as food and beverage, once epitomised industrial supremacy have lost significant market shares to it.s foreign competitors, both at home and abroad. Recognising the fact once pre-eminent world-wide economic position of former socialist economies has generally eroded significantly in recent years. Our study examines the competitive implications of the major determinants of competitiveness within a framework favoured by the Strategic Management theory in selected transition economies. Our research focuses on the three Baltic States and two of their major competitors within the Europe -Germany and EU in general. The main objective of our study is, therefore, to develop an analytical framework for analysing industrial competitiveness and to apply it to the food sector and it's related industries in these economies.
    Description: Seit einigen Jahren haben große Industriebereiche wie Lebensmittel- und Getränkeindustrie, einst überlegene Industriezweige, große Marktanteile an fremde Konkurrenzunternehmen abgeben müssen, sowohl im eigenen Land als auch im Ausland. In unserer Arbeit untersuchen wir die Auswirkungen der Hauptfaktoren des Wettbewerbs im Rahmen der Theorie des Strategic Management in ausgewählten im Wandel begriffenen Volkswirtschaften. Unser Hauptaugenmerk liegt auf drei baltischen Staaten und deren Hauptkonkurrenten . Deutschland und die EU im ganzen. Unser Hauptziel stellt dabei die Entwicklung eines Rahmens dar, mit dessen Hilfe industrieller Wettbewerb analysiert werden kann. Dieser Rahmen wird auf die Lebensmittelindustrie und verwandte Zweige in den entsprechenden Staaten angewendet.
    Keywords: ddc:650
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Ispra: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Although, the need for an efficient Roma integration policy is growing in Europe, surprisingly little robust scientific evidence regarding potential policy costs and expected benefits of alternative policy options has supported the policy design and implementation so far. The present study attempts to narrow this evidence gap and aims to shed light on long-run economic, budgetary and fiscal effects of selected education and employment policies for the inclusion of the marginalised Roma in the EU. We employ a general equilibrium approach that allows us to assess not only the direct impact of alternative Roma integration policies but also to capture all induced feedback effects. Our simulation results suggest that, although Roma integration policies would be costly for the public budget, in the medium- to long-run, economic, budgetary and fiscal benefits may significantly outweigh short- to medium-run Roma integration costs. Depending on the integration policy scenario and the analysed country, the full repayment of the integration policy investment (positive net present value) may be achieved after 7 to 9 years. In terms of the GDP, employment and earnings, the universal basic income scenario may have the highest potential, particularly in the medium- to long-run.
    Keywords: I32 ; J6 ; J11 ; J24 ; O17 ; O43 ; ddc:330 ; Roma ; social marginalisation ; education ; labour market ; integration policy ; universal basic income
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: This study empirically examines interdependencies between BitCoin and altcoin markets in the short- and long-run. We apply time-series analytical mechanisms to daily data of 17 virtual currencies (BitCoin + 16 alternative virtual currencies) and two Altcoin price indices for the period 2013-2016. Our empirical findings confirm that indeed BitCoin and Altcoin markets are interdependent. The BitCoin-Altcoin price relationship is significantly stronger in the short-run than in the long-run. We cannot fully confirm the hypothesis that the BitCoin price relationship is stronger with those Altcoins that are more similar in their price formation mechanism to BitCoin. In the long-run, macro-financial indicators determine the altcoin price formation to a greater degree than BitCoin does. The virtual currency supply is exogenous and therefore plays only a limited role in the price formation.
    Keywords: E31 ; E42 ; G12 ; ddc:330 ; BitCoin ; altcoins ; virtual currencies ; price formation ; supply ; demand ; macroeconomic development
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Seville: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The present paper estimates and decomposes the employment effect of innovation by R&D intensity levels. Our microeconometric analysis is based on a large international panel data set from the EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. Employing flexible semi-parametric methods - the generalised propensity score - allows us to recover the full functional relationship between R&D investment and firm employment, and to address important econometric issues, which is not possible in the standard estimation approach used in the previous literature. Our results suggest that modest innovators do not create and may even destruct jobs by raising their R&D expenditures. Most of the jobs in the economy are created by innovation followers: increasing innovation by 1% may increase employment up to 0.7%. The job creation effect of innovation reaches its peak when R&D intensity is around 100% of the total capital expenditure, after which the positive employment effect declines and becomes statistically insignificant. Innovation leaders do not create jobs by further increasing their R&D expenditures, which are already very high.
    Keywords: C14 ; C21 ; F23 ; J20 ; J23 ; O30 ; O32 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; R&D investment ; causal inference ; semi-parametric ; employment ; job creation ; GPS
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Ispra: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: We provide a novel evidence about the innovation-employment nexus by decomposing it by R&D intensity in a continuous setup and relaxing the linearity assumption. Using a large international firm-level panel data set for OECD countries and employing a flexible semi-parametric method – the generalised propensity score – allows us to recover the full functional relationship between the R&D-driven innovation and firm employment as well as address important econometric issues, which is not possible in the standard estimation approach used in the previous literature. Our results confirm that the relationship between innovation and employment entails important non-linearities responsible for significant differences in employment response to innovation at different R&D intensity levels.
    Keywords: C14 ; C21 ; F23 ; J20 ; J23 ; O30 ; O32 ; O33 ; ddc:330 ; R&D investment ; employment ; propensity score ; firm-level data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The issues of the forced migration and integration of refugees in the EU society and labour markets are high on the policy agenda. Apart from humanitarian aspects, a sustainable integration of accepted refugees is important also for social, economic, budgetary and other reasons. Although, the potential consequences of the refugee acceptance are being often discussed, little scientific evidence has been provided for the policy debate so far in the context of the current refugee crisis. The present study attempts to shed light on the long-run social, economic and budgetary effects of the rapidly increasing forced immigration into the EU by performing a scenario analysis of alternative refugee integration scenarios. Our simulation results suggest that, although the refugee integration (e.g. by the providing language and professional training) is costly for the public budget, in the medium- to long-run, the social, economic and fiscal benefits may significantly outweigh the short-run refugee integration costs. Depending on the integration policy scenario and policy financing method, the annual long-run GDP effect would be 0.2% to 1.4% above the baseline growth, and the full repayment of the integration policy investment (positive net present value) would be achieved after 9 to 19 years.
    Keywords: F22 ; J6 ; J11 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Migration ; refugees ; social inclusion ; labour market ; integration policy ; modelling ; scenario analysis ; macroeconomic model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: This is the first paper to study job creation and destruction in EU agriculture. We disaggregate gross employment patterns and net job flows into detailed intra-sectoral labour adjustment dynamics based on a unique EU-wide firm level panel dataset for 1990-2005. We find that: (1) job creation and destruction rates in EU agriculture are comparable to other sectors; (2) there is some evidence of ongoing substitution of family labour for hired labour (3) there are important differences in job creation and destruction rates between different Member States; (4) these differences can be attributed to structural differences across countries, sectors and firm types; (5) time variation of job reallocation fluctuates countercyclically; (6) idiosyncratic effects are the main driver of time variance in job reallocation.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Job creation ; job destruction ; FADN ; EU ; labour adjustment in agriculture ; Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsmobilität ; Landwirtschaft ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Recently, the European Commission has proposed to introduce a new mi- gration policy instrument - Blue Cards - to attract highly skilled workers from abroad by lifting labour market restrictions, offering financial and housing ben- efits. The excludability character of human capital suggests that what is benefi- cial for receiving countries might be hfirmful for sending countries. This article investigates if and why high-skill migration in general and Blue Card scheme in particular might be hfirmful for sending countries. We find that the proposed Blue Card scheme makes the developing country growth prospects indeed blue. However, compared to other firms of labour migration, the upcoming Blue Card scheme is known well in advance. Analysing alternative policy options we show that, taking advantage of this ex-ante infirmation, targeted and timed policy interventions can minimise the adverse impacts of high-skill emigration. Thus, compared to other migration regimes Blue Cards are worse for sending countries, but they offer better opportunities for them to avoid the adverse impacts.
    Keywords: F02 ; F22 ; ddc:330 ; High-skill migration ; innovative capital ; economic growth ; Brain Drain ; Standortwettbewerb ; Migrationspolitik ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: The main objective of the present paper is to estimate the extent to which firm investment is substituted (crowded-out) by investment support policies granted under the EU Rural Development Programme (RDP). In the empirical analyses we employ the difference-in-difference propensity score matching approach, which allows us to address several important sources of bias, such as selection bias, the simultaneity bias, and functional form misspecification, from which many previous studies suffer. Using panel data of 1,333 firms from the Schleswig-Holstein region in Germany, we find that the crowding-out effect of the RDP is close to 100%, implying that firms use public support to substitute for private investments. Furthermore, no evidence was found that, due to RDP programme support, firms would have brought forward their investments planned originally in a later period, rejecting the f inter-temporal substitution of investments.
    Keywords: F1 ; O1 ; R3 ; R4 ; ddc:330 ; investment subsidy ; crowding-out ; substitution effect ; additionality ; subsidy leverage ; propensity score matching
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: This paper estimates the capitalization of the Single Payment Scheme (SPS) into land values. The theory suggests that the relationship between the SPS and land rents is non-linear and discontinuous, because the SPS impact on land values depends on many factors, such as policy implementation details, market imperfections and institutional regulations. In empirical analysis we employ a unique firm-level panel data set, and apply the generalized propensity score (GPS) matching approach to estimate the capitalization of the SPS. Our results suggest that around 6 percent of the total SPS get capitalized into land rents. On average in the EU, the non-firming landowners' gains from the SPS are only 3 percent. However, there is a large variation in the capitalization rate for different SPS levels, and between Member States (between 0 and 58 percent).
    Keywords: Q12 ; Q18 ; ddc:330 ; decoupled subsidies ; capitalization ; land market ; income distributional effects ; selection bias
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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