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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 43-48 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper defines situation awareness (SA) and discusses its importance to operator-machine system safety and functioning in the context of process control activities. Specifically, identified are relationships of human detection of critical process cues converying the status of automated control systems and operator interpretation of the meaning and relevance of such information to the potential for negative incidents in chemical processing. Beyond individual operator SA in interacting with control systems, intra- and inter- work team SA are discussed for supporting individual attainment of process control responsibilities. Factors critical to team SA are discussed. “Road blocks” to team SA are also analytically examined. Lastly, methods for assessing individual and team SA are reviewed and vehicles for relating outcomes of these methods to changes in process control operator and team behavior to improve human-machine system safety and performance are relayed.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Human supervisory control and monitoring of automated systems, as well as, passive system(s) information processing can all be classified as forms of out-of-the-loop (OOTL) performance. Whether the operator's task is to decide if process control intervention is necessary, detect a critical system event, or accept or reject the actions of a computer controller, he or she is removed from direct, real-time control of the system. OOTL performance is a critical issue in overall automated systems functioning because it is associated with numerous negative consequences including: (a) operator failure to observe system parameter changes and intervene when necessary (vigilance decrements); (b) human over-trust in computer controllers (complacency); (c) operator loss of system or situation awareness; and (d) operator direct/manual control skill decay. These consequences have been found to impact human performance under both normal operating conditions and system failure modes, with a greater effect on the latter [15] leading to serious problems in operator ability to perform their assigned tasks when working with automated systems.Level of automation (LOA) has been put forth as an approach to ameliorating OOTL performance problems. It is intended to determine the optimal assignment of control between a human operator and computer in order to keep both involved in system operations. LOA considers the capabilities and capacities of both the human and computer controller in determining their optimal coupling. It constitutes a systems approach to resolving OOTL performance problems by minimizing the negative consequences associated with the removal of the operator from active system control, and allows for the strengths of both human decision making and computer processing to be realized. When compared to a technological approach that assesses only the capabilities of the computer in allocating as much responsibility to the machine as possible, and assigning the remaining tasks to the human operator, the advantages can be considerable.A LOA taxonomy will be presented along with research examining its utility in a dynamic control task. Using LOA to identify optimal combinations of human and computer control was found to produce improvements in system performance under intermediate levels. These levels involve joint human and computer control of various system functions, such as monitoring, planning, and option selection and implementation. Results indicated decreases in the number of system processes/tasks overlooked by operators. These improvements may translate into cost reductions due to improved operational safety and are anticipated to be applicable to process control operations.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The goal of this research was to define a measure of situation awareness (SA) in an air traffic control (ATC) task and to assess the influence of adaptive automation (AA) of various information processing functions on controller perception, comprehension and projection. The measure was also to serve as a basis for defining and developing an approach to triggering dynamic control allocations, as part of AA, based on controller SA. To achieve these objectives, an enhanced version of an ATC simulation (Multitask (copyright)) was developed for use in two human factors experiments. The simulation captured the basic functions of Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) and was capable of presenting to operators four different modes of control, including information acquisition, information analysis, decision making and action implementation automation, as well as a completely manual control mode. The SA measure that was developed as part of the research was based on the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), previous goal-directed task analyses of enroute control and TRACON, and a separate cognitive task analysis on the ATC simulation. The results of the analysis on Multitask were used as a basis for formulating SA queries as part of the SAGAT-based approach to measuring controller SA, which was used in the experiments. A total of 16 subjects were recruited for both experiments. Half the subjects were used in Experiment #1, which focused on assessing the sensitivity and reliability of the SA measurement approach in the ATC simulation. Comparisons were made of manual versus automated control. The remaining subjects were used in the second experiment, which was intended to more completely describe the SA implications of AA applied to specific controller information processing functions, and to describe how the measure could ultimately serve as a trigger of dynamic function allocations in the application of AA to ATC. Comparisons were made of the sensitivity of the SA measure to automation manipulations impacting both higher-order information processing functions, such as information analysis and decision making, versus lower-order functions, including information acquisition and action implementation. All subjects were exposed to all forms of AA of the ATC task and the manual control condition. The approach to AA used in both experiments was to match operator workload, assessed using a secondary task, to dynamic control allocations in the primary task. In total, the subjects in each experiment participated in 10 trials with each lasting between 45 minutes and 1 hour. In both experiments, ATC performance was measured in terms of aircraft cleared, conflicting, and collided. Secondary task (gauge monitoring) performance was assessed in terms of a hit-to-signal ratio. As part of the SA measure, three simulation freezes were conducted during each trial to administer queries on Level 1, 2, and 3 SA.
    Keywords: Air Transportation and Safety
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: During the first year of this project, a taxonomy of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) was applied to the advanced commercial aircraft by categorizing actual modes of McDonald Douglas MD-11 autoflight system operation in terms of the taxonomy. As well, high LOAs included in the taxonomy (e.g., supervisory control) were modeled in the context of MD-11 autoflight systems through development of a virtual flight simulator. The flight simulator was an integration of a re-configurable simulator developed by the Georgia Institute Technology and new software prototypes of autoflight system modules found in the MD-11 cockpit. In addition to this work, a version of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) was developed for application to commercial piloting tasks. A software package was developed to deliver the SAGAT and was integrated with the virtual flight simulator.
    Keywords: Behavioral Sciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This report has been prepared to closeout a NASA grant to Mississippi State University (MSU) for research into situation awareness (SA) and automation in the advanced commercial aircraft cockpit. The grant was divided into two obligations including $60,000 for the period from May 11, 2000 to December 25, 2000. The information presented in this report summarizes work completed through this obligation. It also details work to be completed with the balance of the current obligation and unobligated funds amounting to $50,043, which are to be granted to North Carolina State University for completion of the research project from July 31, 2000 to May 10, 2001. This research was to involve investigation of a broad spectrum of degrees of automation of complex systems on human-machine performance and SA. The work was to empirically assess the effect of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) described in a taxonomy developed by Endsley & Kaber (1999) on naive and experienced subject performance and SA in simulated flight tasks. The study was to be conducted in the context of a realistic simulation of aircraft flight control. The objective of this work was to identify LOAs that effectively integrate humans and machines under normal operating conditions and failure modes. In general, the work was to provide insight into the design of automation in the commercial aircraft cockpit. Both laboratory and field investigations were to be conducted. At this point in time, a high-fidelity flight simulator of the McDonald Douglas (MD) 11 aircraft has been completed. The simulator integrates a reconfigurable flight simulator developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology and stand-alone simulations of MD-11 autoflight systems developed at MSU. Use of the simulator has been integrated into a study plan for the laboratory research and it is expected that the simulator will also be used in the field study with actual commercial pilots. In addition to the flight simulator, an electronic version of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) has been completed for measuring commercial pilot SA in flight tasks. The SAGAT is to be used in both the lab and field studies. Finally, the lab study has been designed and subjects have been recruited for participation in experiments. This study will investigate the effects of five levels of automation, described in Endsley & Kaber's (1999) taxonomy and applied to the MD-11 autoflight system, on private pilot performance and SA in basic flight tasks by using the MD-11 simulator. The field study remains to be planned and executed.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.
    Keywords: Air Transportation and Safety
    Type: NASA-TM-2006-214504 , L-19255
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Adaptive automation (AA) has been explored as a solution to the problems associated with human-automation interaction in supervisory control environments. However, research has focused on the performance effects of dynamic control allocations of early stage sensory and information acquisition functions. The present research compares the effects of AA to the entire range of information processing stages of human operators, such as air traffic controllers. The results provide evidence that the effectiveness of AA is dependent on the stage of task performance (human-machine system information processing) that is flexibly automated. The results suggest that humans are better able to adapt to AA when applied to lower-level sensory and psychomotor functions, such as information acquisition and action implementation, as compared to AA applied to cognitive (analysis and decision-making) tasks. The results also provide support for the use of AA, as compared to completely manual control. These results are discussed in terms of implications for AA design for aviation.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: NASA/TP-2002-211932 , NAS 1.60:211932 , L-18229
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