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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Soil Technology 2 (1989), S. 147-161 
    ISSN: 0933-3630
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-8634
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0021-8634
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Soil & Tillage Research 31 (1994), S. 1-9 
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    Keywords: Calibration ; Normal stress ; Shear box ; Shear graph ; Shear stress
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Soil & Tillage Research 26 (1993), S. 211-225 
    ISSN: 0167-1987
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0021-8634
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A critical-state finite element model was used to simulate compaction under single and dual tyres and tracks. The compaction involved deformations at three different scales, from small tyres with a contact area of about 70 cm2 (single tyre) supporting a load of about 50 kg, to large tyres of about 1.2 m2 (dual tyres) supporting a load of about 4500 kg. The predictions were compared with measured values for several different quantities. These included: rut depths; vertical displacement and shear strain: vertical stresses; and, void ratios and precompression stress measured on sampled soil cores. In general, the predictions and measurements agreed reasonably well. However, the agreement between prediction and measurement depended on the precision of measurements, soil disturbance, and the volume of soil involved in a measurement relative to the volume of soil influenced by the tyre or track. This study shows that the critical-state finite element model is useful, offering insight into the compaction process, the dependence of compaction on soil strength and compressibility, and practical implications for soil management.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: We have developed a critical state, stress-strain analysis that predicts the entire sequence of states from start to the end of a constant cell volume triaxial test in p-q-v-ɛz, space, where p is the spherical stress, q is the deviator stress, v is the specific volume and ɛz is the axial strain. The analysis requires five soil properties to be specified, these being the critical state properties (M, λ and κ) and two elastic properties (any two of E, η, G and K—all four can be found from any two).In order to test the analysis, properties taken mostly from one series of constant cell volume triaxial tests are used to simulate the behaviour in a second test series. In both series the two soils (a sand loam and a clay loam) were tested at several different water contents. The first (property estimation) series of tests was performed using large samples, whereas the second (verification) series involved small samples. The behaviour is quite different in the two series. The elastic property E was not determined in the first series of tests but was estimated from the second series. Furthermore, for three very wet samples, λ had to be estimated by fitting the analysis to the data. The verification was not therefore fully independent of the input test data, particularly for the three wet samples. The stress strain analysis simulated the behaviour of both series of tests in all four dimensions of the p-q-v-ɛz space. The match in p-q-v space was good for all samples. On a q-ɛz plane, the value of q was under-estimated for several samples, but for most of the samples the match was good on this plane. The analysis was generally as good as, and sometimes better than, a previous analysis that deals only with the end point of the test in p-q-v space. The previous analysis did not take account of the elastic properties. The stress-strain analysis therefore seems to offer a useful framework for parameter estimation from constant cell volume triaxial tests. This extends the usefulness of the test itself, as the elastic properties may now be accounted for. The success of the analysis also strengthens the record of success of the critical state concept for unsaturated soils.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The paper examines the ability of a critical-state model to predict stresses and deformations of agricultural soil in a variety of laboratory shear and compression tests. The critical-state model used is a simple extension to the well-known Modified Cam Clay model. The extension provides a smoother transition from elastic to plastic behaviour and, amongst other things, introduces a capacity to model cyclic loading. The model is incorporated into a finite-element program.The model predictions are compared with: experimental observations of simple and direct shear tests with both constant normal stress and constant volume conditions; cyclic uniaxial compression tests; compaction tests in U-shaped and V-shaped boxes; and observations of some gross structural features caused by shear in direct-shear boxes. Predictions are made for both the compressing, strain-hardening and the expanding, strain-softening regimes of behaviour. In all cases the material properties for the model were obtained from tests other than those being used for the comparisons.The model predictions generally compare well with the various experimental results, although some numerical problems were encountered in strain-softening conditions. This demonstrates the versatility of the critical-state model for predicting fairly general stress and, deformation conditions in unsaturated soils using only five material-property constants. It also demonstrates that common laboratory strength and compression tests are adequate to measure the material properties.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1365-2389
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Roots grow thicker in compacted soil, even though it requires greater force for a large object to penetrate soil than it does for a small one. We examined the advantage of thickening in terms of the stresses around a root penetrating with constant shape, rather than the stresses around an expanding cylinder or sphere, as has been studied previously. We combined experiments and simulations of the stresses around roots growing in compacted soils. We measured the diameter of pea roots growing in sandy loam and clay loam at four different densities, and the critical-state properties of the soils. At a penetration resistance of about 1 MPa the diameter of the roots in the sandy loam was about 40% greater than that at 0.7 MPa, and at 2 MPa it was about 60% greater. In the clay loam, there was less thickening – about 10% greater at 1 MPa and about 20% greater at 1.5 MPa. The maximum axial stresses were predicted using a critical-state finite-element model to be at the very tip of the root cap. When there was friction between the root and the soil, shear stresses were predicted with smaller values at the tip than just behind the tip. When the interface between the soil and the root was assumed to be frictionless, there were by definition no shear stresses. In the frictionless case the advantage of root thickening on relieving peak stress at the root tip was diminished. The axial and shear stresses were predicted to be smaller in the clay loam than in the sandy loam and may explain why the roots did not thicken in this soil although its resistance to penetration was similar. Our results suggest that the local values of axial and shear stresses experienced by the root near its tip may be as important in constraining root growth as the total penetration resistance.
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