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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-07-01
    Description: Transferrin receptor facilitates TGF-β and BMP signaling activation to control craniofacial morphogenesis Cell Death and Disease 7, e2282 (June 2016). doi:10.1038/cddis.2016.170 Authors: R Lei, K Zhang, K Liu, X Shao, Z Ding, F Wang, Y Hong, M Zhu, H Li & H Li
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4889
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: We demonstrate a novel plasma device for magnetic reconnection, driven by Gekko XII lasers irradiating a double-turn Helmholtz capacitor-coil target. Optical probing revealed an accumulated plasma plume near the magnetic reconnection outflow. The background electron density and magnetic field were measured to be approximately 10 18  cm −3 and 60 T by using Nomarski interferometry and the Faraday effect, respectively. In contrast with experiments on magnetic reconnection constructed by the Biermann battery effect, which produced high beta values, our beta value was much lower than one, which greatly extends the parameter regime of laser-driven magnetic reconnection and reveals its potential in astrophysical plasma applications.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Pipecolic acid (Pip), a non-proteinaceous product of lysine catabolism, is an important regulator of immunity in plants and humans alike. In plants, Pip accumulates upon pathogen infection and has been associated with systemic acquired resistance (SAR). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Pip-mediated signaling and its relationship to other known SAR inducers remain unknown. We show that in plants, Pip confers SAR by increasing levels of the free radicals, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which act upstream of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). Plants defective in NO, ROS, G3P, or salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis accumulate reduced Pip in their distal uninfected tissues although they contain wild-type–like levels of Pip in their infected leaves. These data indicate that de novo synthesis of Pip in distal tissues is dependent on both SA and G3P and that distal levels of SA and G3P play an important role in SAR. These results also suggest a unique scenario whereby metabolites in a signaling cascade can stimulate each other’s biosynthesis depending on their relative levels and their site of action.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: Genomic structural variation (GSV) is a ubiquitous phenomenon observed in the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different genetic backgrounds; however, the physiological and phenotypic effects of GSV are not well understood. Here, we first revealed the genetic characteristics of a widely used industrial S. cerevisiae strain, ZTW1, by whole genome sequencing. ZTW1 was identified as an aneuploidy strain and a large-scale GSV was observed in the ZTW1 genome compared with the genome of a diploid strain YJS329. These GSV events led to copy number variations (CNVs) in many chromosomal segments as well as one whole chromosome in the ZTW1 genome. Changes in the DNA dosage of certain functional genes directly affected their expression levels and the resultant ZTW1 phenotypes. Moreover, CNVs of large chromosomal regions triggered an aneuploidy stress in ZTW1. This stress decreased the proliferation ability and tolerance of ZTW1 to various stresses, while aneuploidy response stress may also provide some benefits to the fermentation performance of the yeast, including increased fermentation rates and decreased byproduct generation. This work reveals genomic characters of the bioethanol S. cerevisiae strain ZTW1 and suggests that GSV is an important kind of mutation that changes the traits of industrial S. cerevisiae strains.
    Print ISSN: 1567-1356
    Electronic ISSN: 1567-1364
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Plant genera with both diploid and polyploid species are a common evolutionary occurrence. Polyploids, especially allopolyploids such as cotton and wheat, are a great model system for heterosis research. Here, we have integrated genome sequences and transcriptome data of Gossypium species to construct co-expression networks and identified functional modules from different cotton species, including 1155 and 1884 modules in G. arboreum and G. hirsutum , respectively. We overlayed the gene expression results onto the co-expression network. We further provided network comparison analysis for orthologous genes across the diploid and allotetraploid Gossypium . We also constructed miRNA-target networks and predicted PPI networks for both cotton species. Furthermore, we integrated in-house ChIP-seq data of histone modification (H3K4me3) together with cis-element analysis and gene sets enrichment analysis tools for studying possible gene regulatory mechanism in Gossypium species. Finally, we have constructed an online ccNET database ( http://structuralbiology.cau.edu.cn/gossypium ) for comparative gene functional analyses at a multi-dimensional network and epigenomic level across diploid and polyploid Gossypium species. The ccNET database will be beneficial for community to yield novel insights into gene/module functions during cotton development and stress response, and might be useful for studying conservation and diversity in other polyploid plants, such as T. aestivum and Brassica napus .
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-11-04
    Description: Rayleigh waves always coexist with reflection waves in land seismic exploration. Many previous works have shown the value of Rayleigh waves in obtaining near-surface shear velocity, however, few of them show successful applications from exploration geophysics. With an aim of practical application of Rayleigh waves in exploration data, we discuss how to obtain an accurate and high-resolution dispersion curve, the inversion algorithm, and the comparison of velocity estimated from Rayleigh-wave inversion with refraction interpretation and tomographic inversion. We first analyze the resolution difference of f-v spectra calculated through f-k , -p , and phase-shift approaches and propose a two-step spectrum normalization scheme for accurate picking of the dispersion curve. We then adopt the weighted damped least-squares method as the inversion algorithm and find through synthetic data that the estimated shear velocity based on the algorithm is quite accurate and the inversion algorithm is fast and robust. Finally, we select seismic data from one land exploration project in China as an example for test, and find the inverted velocity from Rayleigh-wave dispersion has a good correlation with refraction interpretation and tomographic inversion.
    Print ISSN: 1070-485X
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-3789
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-09-14
    Description: Humoral immunity involves multiple checkpoints during B-cell development, maturation, and activation. The cell death receptor CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis plays a critical role in eliminating the unwanted activation of B cells by self-reactive antigens and in maintaining B-cell homeostasis through activation-induced B-cell death (AICD). The molecular mechanisms controlling AICD remain largely undefined....
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-05-02
    Description: In China, and elsewhere, long-term economic development and poverty alleviation need to be balanced against the likelihood of ecological failure. Here, we show how paleoenvironmental records can provide important multidecadal perspectives on ecosystem services (ES). More than 50 different paleoenvironmental proxy records can be mapped to a wide range of ES categories and subcategories. Lake sediments are particularly suitable for reconstructing records of regulating services, such as soil stability, sediment regulation, and water purification, which are often less well monitored. We demonstrate the approach using proxy records from two sets of lake sediment sequences in the lower Yangtze basin covering the period 1800–2006, combined with recent socioeconomic and climate records. We aggregate the proxy records into a regional regulating services index to show that rapid economic growth and population increases since the 1950s are strongly coupled to environmental degradation. Agricultural intensification from the 1980s onward has been the main driver for reducing rural poverty but has led to an accelerated loss of regulating services. In the case of water purification, there is strong evidence that a threshold has been transgressed within the last two decades. The current steep trajectory of the regulating services index implies that regional land management practices across a large agricultural tract of eastern China are critically unsustainable.
    Keywords: Sustainability Science
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-09-25
    Description: The ultimate goal of muscular dystrophy gene therapy is to treat all muscles in the body. Global gene delivery was demonstrated in dystrophic mice more than a decade ago using adeno-associated virus (AAV). However, translation to affected large mammals has been challenging. The only reported attempt was performed in newborn Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) dogs. Unfortunately, AAV injection resulted in growth delay, muscle atrophy and contracture. Here we report safe and bodywide AAV delivery in juvenile DMD dogs. Three ~2-m-old affected dogs received intravenous injection of a tyrosine-engineered AAV-9 reporter or micro-dystrophin (μDys) vector at the doses of 1.92–6.24 x 10 14 viral genome particles/kg under transient or sustained immune suppression. DMD dogs tolerated injection well and their growth was not altered. Hematology and blood biochemistry were unremarkable. No adverse reactions were observed. Widespread muscle transduction was seen in skeletal muscle, the diaphragm and heart for at least 4 months (the end of the study). Nominal expression was detected in internal organs. Improvement in muscle histology was observed in μDys-treated dogs. In summary, systemic AAV gene transfer is safe and efficient in young adult dystrophic large mammals. This may translate to bodywide gene therapy in pediatric patients in the future.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-09-17
    Description: Pathological antibodies have been demonstrated to play a key role in type II immune hypersensitivity reactions, resulting in the destruction of healthy tissues and leading to considerable morbidity for the patient. Unfortunately, current treatments present significant iatrogenic risk while still falling short for many patients in achieving clinical remission. In...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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