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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-07-21
    Description: The hidden (H) quantum state in 1T-TaS 2 has sparked considerable interest in the field of correlated electron systems. Here, we investigate ultrafast switches to stable H charge density wave (H-CDW) states observed in 1T-TaS 2– x Se x , with x = 0 and 0.5 crystals, upon excitation with a single femtosecond laser pulse. In situ cooling transmission electron microscopy observations, initiated by a single femtosecond laser pumping with a low fluence, reveal a clear transition from a commensurate CDW phase ( q C ) to a new CDW order with q H = (1 – ) q C for the H-CDW state ( = 1/9) accompanied by an evident phase separation. H-CDW domain relaxation then occurs and yields a stable metallic phase under a high-fluence excitation. Furthermore, electrical resistivity measurements show that the notable drop in x = 0 and 0.5 samples associated with the appearance of H-CDW states depend on laser fluence and temperature. These results potentially provide a new perspective on the photodoping mechanism for the emergence of H-CDW states in the 1T-TaS 2– x Se x family.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1991-08-02
    Description: The trapping-mediated dissociative chemisorption of three isotopes of propane (C(3)H(8), CH(3),CD(2)CH(3), and C(3)D(8)) has been investigated on the Pt(110)-(1 x 2) surface, and both the apparent activation energies and the preexponential factors of the surface reaction rate coefficients have been measured. In addition, the probabilities of primary and secondary C-H bond cleavage for alkane activation on a surface were evaluated. The activation energy for primary C-H bond cleavage was 425 calories per mole greater than that of secondary C-H bond cleavage, and the two true activation energies that embody the single measured activation energy were determined for each of the three isotopes. Secondary C-H bond cleavage is also preferred on entropic grounds, and the magnitude of the effect was quantified.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Weinberg, W H -- Sun, Y K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1991 Aug 2;253(5019):542-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17745187" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Abstract Agricultural production is accompanied by a large amount of water consumption, nonpoint source pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of associated impacts on regional water, the environment, and the economy caused by variations in agricultural distribution is insufficient. This paper evaluates the evolution of grain production distribution and its effects on water resources, the economy, and the environment in China by using virtual water theory. The results show that the grain production area located in northern China is characterized by scarce water resources and a less developed economy. Due to the imbalance between grain supply and demand, virtual water embedded in grain will transfer among regions. These flows have formed a pattern where virtual water transfers from the water‐scarce northern region to the water‐rich southern region, increasing from 72.99 Gm3 in 1997 to 124.64 Gm3 in 2014. Evolution of grain production distribution changes the spatial pattern of grain production and consumption, and it exacerbates water resource pressure, the gray water footprint, and greenhouse gas emissions in the area that exports grain virtual water. The gray water footprint and carbon emissions in the grain export area increased by 10.66% and 31.06% during the study period, respectively. Meanwhile, the distribution of regional grain production influences the allocation of water resources in agriculture and other industries. Due to the difference between the economic benefits created by industry and agriculture, grain virtual water flow will have effects on the regional economic development.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2008-06-07
    Description: In mammals, dosage compensation is achieved by X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in the female. The noncoding Xist gene initiates silencing of the X chromosome, whereas its antisense partner Tsix blocks silencing. The complementarity of Xist and Tsix RNAs has long suggested a role for RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we report that murine Xist and Tsix form duplexes in vivo. During XCI, the duplexes are processed to small RNAs (sRNAs), most likely on the active X (Xa) in a Dicer-dependent manner. Deleting Dicer compromises sRNA production and derepresses Xist. Furthermore, without Dicer, Xist RNA cannot accumulate and histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation is blocked on the inactive X (Xi). The defects are partially rescued by truncating Tsix. Thus, XCI and RNAi intersect, down-regulating Xist on Xa and spreading silencing on Xi.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2584363/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2584363/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ogawa, Yuya -- Sun, Bryan K -- Lee, Jeannie T -- R01 GM058839/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM058839-10/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2008 Jun 6;320(5881):1336-41. doi: 10.1126/science.1157676.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18535243" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cells, Cultured ; DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics/metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells ; Endoribonucleases/genetics/metabolism ; Female ; Histones/metabolism ; Male ; Methylation ; Mice ; *RNA Interference ; RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism ; RNA, Long Noncoding ; RNA, Small Nuclear/metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated/genetics/*metabolism ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Ribonuclease III ; X Chromosome/*genetics/metabolism ; *X Chromosome Inactivation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2010-02-13
    Description: The collective properties of nanoparticles manifest in their ability to self-organize into complex microscale structures. Slow oxidation of tellurium ions in cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanoparticles results in the assembly of 1- to 4-micrometer-long flat ribbons made of several layers of individual cadmium sulfide (CdS)/CdTe nanocrystals. Twisting of the ribbons with an equal distribution of left and right helices was induced by illumination with visible light. The pitch lengths (250 to 1500 nanometers) varied with illumination dose, and the twisting was associated with the relief of mechanical shear stress in assembled ribbons caused by photooxidation of CdS. Unusual shapes of multiparticle assemblies, such as ellipsoidal clouds, dog-bone agglomerates, and ribbon bunches, were observed as intermediate stages. Computer simulations revealed that the balance between attraction and electrostatic repulsion determines the resulting geometry and dimensionality of the nanoparticle assemblies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Srivastava, Sudhanshu -- Santos, Aaron -- Critchley, Kevin -- Kim, Ki-Sub -- Podsiadlo, Paul -- Sun, Kai -- Lee, Jaebeom -- Xu, Chuanlai -- Lilly, G Daniel -- Glotzer, Sharon C -- Kotov, Nicholas A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 Mar 12;327(5971):1355-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1177218. Epub 2010 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20150443" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cadmium Compounds/chemistry ; Computer Simulation ; *Light ; Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Microscopy, Electron ; Oxidation-Reduction ; *Quantum Dots ; Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission ; Sulfides/chemistry ; Tellurium/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-01-24
    Description: Understanding how molecules can restructure the surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts under reaction conditions requires methods that can visualize atoms in real space and time. We applied a newly developed aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy to show that adsorbed carbon monoxide (CO) molecules caused the {100} facets of a gold nanoparticle to reconstruct during CO oxidation at room temperature. The CO molecules adsorbed at the on-top sites of gold atoms in the reconstructed surface, and the energetic favorability of this reconstructed structure was confirmed by ab initio calculations and image simulations. This atomic-scale visualizing method can be applied to help elucidate reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yoshida, Hideto -- Kuwauchi, Yasufumi -- Jinschek, Joerg R -- Sun, Keju -- Tanaka, Shingo -- Kohyama, Masanori -- Shimada, Satoshi -- Haruta, Masatake -- Takeda, Seiji -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jan 20;335(6066):317-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1213194.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22267808" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-30
    Description: An improved method was applied for remediating cadmium and copper co-contaminated soil and reducing the metal concentration in Rhizoma chuanxiong . Pot experiments were conducted with six amendments (composed with bentonite, phosphate, humic acid, biochar, sepiolite powder, etc.). The results showed that soil pH, biological activities (soil enzymatic activities and microbial counts) and R. chuanxiong biomass were greatly improved with the addition of amendments in all treatments, especially in T3 and T6. Also, amendments effectively decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde and H 2 O 2 in R. chuanxiong . In the T3 treatment, the bio-available Cd and Cu in soil were significantly decreased by 0.53 and 0.41 mg kg –1 , respectively. Meanwhile, the amendment in T3 reduced Cd and Cu accumulation in R. chuanxiong about 45.83 and 39.37%, respectively, compared to T0. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra showed the surface functional groups of every amendment. To conclude, this study offers an effective and environmental method to reduce metal accumulation in R. chuanxiong on heavy metal co-contaminated soil.
    Keywords: environmental science
    Electronic ISSN: 2054-5703
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Royal Society
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-24
    Description: In the present work, processes of multi-pass cold drawn were conducted on hypereutectoid pearlite steel wires with carbon content of 1.02 w.t.%. Relationship between microstructural development and mechanical properties of hypereutectoid steel wires after drawing was investigated. It was found that when the strain was relatively small, lamellar morphology of the pearlite in the steel wire after cold drawn remained, and the spacing of lamella was refined. With the increase of the compression ratio, coordinated deformation of ferrite and cementite occurred and pearlite lamella were bended and folded. As the strain increased, fibrous morphology of pearlite lamella was observed in longitudinal section of the wire. High magnification TEM observation revealed the fragmentation of cementite and a large number of nano-crystalline. Tensile strength, microhardness and torsion strength of the steel wires after multi-pass drawn process increased significantly with the increase of accumulate...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-24
    Description: The effect of parameter of MIG arc brazing on the microstructure and the bonding strength of ZChSnSb11-6 and steel substrate has been studied. A cladding of ZChSnSb11-6 was obtained on the surface of medium carbon steel by MIG arc brazing. The microstructure of ZChSnSb11-6 and the microstructure of the interface between ZChSnSb11-6 and steel substrate have been systematically investigated. The highest bonding strength of ZChSnSb11-6 and the steel substrate is 66.42Mpa when welding voltage is 22V and welding current is 120A. The reason for the enhancement of the bonding strength was discussed. When the hard and brittle SnSb phase near the IMC layer is subjected to tensile stress at the interface between the Tin-based Babbitt alloy and the steel substrate, stress concentration occurs and the initiation and propagation of cracks are promoted. When the welding voltage is 20V, The number of the SnSb phase near the IMC layer decreases while the welding current increases, so the bondin...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-24
    Description: The effect of compression ratio on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ultra-high strength pearlitic wire in single-pass cold drawing has been studied. The ultra-high tensile strength cord steel with a carbon content of 1.02 wt% were pulled through a single-pass drawing to different compression ratios (0-30%). With the increase of the single-pass compression ratio, the tensile strength, microhardness and torsional properties of the steel wire increased gradually. When the compression rate increased from 0 to 30%, the tensile strength of the steel wire increased from 1263.4 MPa to 1553.7 MPa, the torsional strength of steel wire increased from 1126.83 MPa to 1279.66 MPa. In the single-pass drawing process, the strengthening mechanism of the pearlitic steel wire are mainly the work hardening caused by the dislocation slip in the ferrite, and the fine grain strengthening caused by the decrease of the pearlite sheet spacing.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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