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  • 1
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    In:  Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., Amsterdam, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 18-30, pp. 1390
    Publication Date: 2005
    Keywords: Earthquake hazard ; Attenuation ; Moment tensor ; Seismicity ; Induced seismicity ; USA ; dam ; BSSA
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-10-16
    Description: We present an approach for subspace detection of small seismic events that includes methods for estimating magnitudes and associating detections from multiple stations into unique events. The process is used to identify mining related seismicity from a surface coal mine and an underground coal mining district, both located in the Western U.S. Using a blasting log and a locally derived seismic catalogue as ground truth, we assess detector performance in terms of verified detections, false positives and failed detections. We are able to correctly identify over 95 per cent of the surface coal mine blasts and about 33 per cent of the events from the underground mining district, while keeping the number of potential false positives relatively low by requiring all detections to occur on two stations. We find that most of the potential false detections for the underground coal district are genuine events missed by the local seismic network, demonstrating the usefulness of regional subspace detectors in augmenting local catalogues. We note a trade-off in detection performance between stations at smaller source–receiver distances, which have increased signal-to-noise ratio, and stations at larger distances, which have greater waveform similarity. We also explore the increased detection capabilities of a single higher dimension subspace detector, compared to multiple lower dimension detectors, in identifying events that can be described as linear combinations of training events. We find, in our data set, that such an advantage can be significant, justifying the use of a subspace detection scheme over conventional correlation methods.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2005-02-01
    Description: We describe a multipart study to quantify the potential ground-shaking hazard to Joes Valley Dam, a 58-m-high earthfill dam, posed by mining-induced seismicity (MIS) from future underground coal mining, which could approach as close as approximately 1 km to the dam. To characterize future MIS close to the dam, we studied MIS located approximately 3-7 km from the dam at the Trail Mountain coal mine. A 12-station local seismic network (11 stations above ground, one below, combining eight triaxial accelerometers and varied velocity sensors) was operated in the Trail Mountain area from late 2000 through mid-2001 for the dual purpose of (1) continuously monitoring and locating MIS associated with longwall mining at a depth of 0.5-0.6 km and (2) recording high-quality data to develop ground-motion prediction equations for the shallow MIS. (Ground-motion attenuation relationships and moment-tensor results are reported in companion articles.) Utilizing a data set of 1913 earthquakes (M〈 or =2.2), we describe space-time-magnitude distributions of the observed MIS and source-mechanism information. The MIS was highly correlated with mining activity both in space and time. Most of the better-located events have depths constrained within + or -0.6 km of mine level. For the preponderance (98%) of the 1913 located events, only dilatational P-wave first motions were observed, consistent with other evidence for implosive or collapse-type mechanisms associated with coal mining in this region. We assess a probable maximum magnitude of M 3.9 (84th percentile of a cumulative distribution) for potential MIS close to Joes Valley Dam based on both the worldwide and regional record of coal-mining-related MIS and the local geology and future mining scenarios.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2007-05-01
    Print ISSN: 0895-0695
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-2057
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-02-04
    Description: Master event and double-difference techniques were used to relocate mining-induced seismicity (MIS) at the Trail Mountain Mine, a longwall coal mine in central Utah. Travel-time data were collected by Arabasz et al. (2002) using a surface seismic network with stations at elevations both above and below mine level (because of the topography) and a single in-mine station. Arabasz et al. (2002) only used surface stations above mine level to determine locations. Using this network geometry, they were only able to constrain focal depths for 321 of 1829 events. In contrast, we use all stations, creating a 3D network. Hypocentral locations are improved by implementing a master event methodology to reduce the effects of uncertainties in the velocity structure, though the resulting locations do not correspond with known structures or stratigraphy. The mismatch between the locations and geology is likely due to fracturing of the rock mass by the mining process, thereby decreasing the seismic velocity near mined-out regions. Assuming a 10% velocity decrease places the MIS in the roof of the mine. A double-difference procedure is used to mimic a time-varying velocity structure. The time-varying velocity structure results in locations that approximate the dip of the coal seam. By using all available stations and allowing for a time-varying velocity structure, we find the MIS is located immediately above the coal seam and closely follows the position of the coalface. The epicenters align with the roads along the longwall panel, where stress concentrations are expected during mining. Online Material: Animations of the progression of seismicity along the longwall panel.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Technological advances in combination with the onslaught of data availability allow for large seismic data streams to automatically and systematically be recorded, processed, and stored. Here, we develop an automated approach to identify small, local earthquakes within these large continuous seismic data records. Our aim is to automate the process of detecting small seismic events triggered by a distant large earthquake, recorded at a single station. Specifically, we apply time-domain short-term average (STA) to long-term average (LTA) ratio algorithms to three-component data to create a catalog of detections. We remove some of the false detections by requiring the detection be recorded on a minimum of two channels. To calibrate the algorithm, we compare our automatic detection catalog to a set of analyst-derived P -wave arrival times for a subset of small earthquakes occurring in the December 2008 Yellowstone swarm. Of the four STA/LTA algorithms we test (1 s/10 s; 4 s/40 s; 8 s/80 s; 16 s/160 s), the 1 s/10 s and 4 s/40 s detectors proved most effective at identifying the majority of events in the swarm. We apply these detectors to ±45 hrs and ±5 hrs of USArray data from the 2011 Japan M  9.0 and the 2010 Chile M  8.8 earthquakes, respectively. Using time-of-day versus number of detection relationships, we identify 38 of the 728 available stations that exhibit strong anthropogenic noise following the 2011 Japan earthquake. Our detection algorithm identified three regional earthquakes concurrent with the passage of the S - and surface waves of the Chile mainshock at USArray station R11A that locate in the Coso region of California, as well as events in Texas following the Japan earthquake.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Comparison of observed and synthetic radiation patterns suggests that Love waves generated by the 2007 Crandall Canyon Mine collapse ( M w  4.1) are the result of shear waves generated by a relatively large compensated linear vector dipole component at the source, whereas the Love waves associated with a 2013 Rudna Mine collapse ( M w  4.2) are minimal except where amplified by a deep sedimentary basin. We examine the source of the 19 March 2013 Rudna Mine, Poland, collapse with a full moment tensor inversion method, using the complete waveforms of regional-distance seismic data. The computed source is primarily composed of a dominant, and statistically significant, implosive component. The Rudna source is more similar to previous mine collapses than to double-couple tectonic earthquakes. Although source mechanisms are similar, there are clear differences in Love-wave amplitudes. Online Material: Tables of velocity models and figures of moment tensors and waveform fits.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: Technological advances in combination with the onslaught of data availability allow for large seismic data streams to automatically and systematically be recorded, processed, and stored. Here, we develop an automated approach to identify small, local earthquakes within these large continuous seismic data records. Our aim is to automate the process of detecting small seismic events triggered by a distant large earthquake, recorded at a single station. Specifically, we apply time-domain short-term average (STA) to long-term average (LTA) ratio algorithms to three-component data to create a catalog of detections. We remove some of the false detections by requiring the detection be recorded on a minimum of two channels. To calibrate the algorithm, we compare our automatic detection catalog to a set of analyst-derived P -wave arrival times for a subset of small earthquakes occurring in the December 2008 Yellowstone swarm. Of the four STA/LTA algorithms we test (1 s/10 s; 4 s/40 s; 8 s/80 s; 16 s/160 s), the 1 s/10 s and 4 s/40 s detectors proved most effective at identifying the majority of events in the swarm. We apply these detectors to ±45 hrs and ±5 hrs of USArray data from the 2011 Japan M  9.0 and the 2010 Chile M  8.8 earthquakes, respectively. Using time-of-day versus number of detection relationships, we identify 38 of the 728 available stations that exhibit strong anthropogenic noise following the 2011 Japan earthquake. Our detection algorithm identified three regional earthquakes concurrent with the passage of the S - and surface waves of the Chile mainshock at USArray station R11A that locate in the Coso region of California, as well as events in Texas following the Japan earthquake.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: Comparison of observed and synthetic radiation patterns suggests that Love waves generated by the 2007 Crandall Canyon Mine collapse ( M w  4.1) are the result of shear waves generated by a relatively large compensated linear vector dipole component at the source, whereas the Love waves associated with a 2013 Rudna Mine collapse ( M w  4.2) are minimal except where amplified by a deep sedimentary basin. We examine the source of the 19 March 2013 Rudna Mine, Poland, collapse with a full moment tensor inversion method, using the complete waveforms of regional-distance seismic data. The computed source is primarily composed of a dominant, and statistically significant, implosive component. The Rudna source is more similar to previous mine collapses than to double-couple tectonic earthquakes. Although source mechanisms are similar, there are clear differences in Love-wave amplitudes. Online Material: Tables of velocity models and figures of moment tensors and waveform fits.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0895-0695
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-2057
    Topics: Geosciences
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