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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Rhizosphere microorganisms ; plant growth promotion ; N2-fixation ; P-mobilization ; phytohormones ; antagonism ; root colonization ; growth conditions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract SelectedRhizobium bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming (AM) fungi and associative bacteria have been shown to stimulate the growth of legumes, gramineae and cruciferae in field experiments on different soil types in temperate regions. A combination of microorganisms with different metabolic capacities (N2-fixation, P-mobilization; production of phytohormones and antibiotics) can partly surpass the effect of single inoculations, or can produce a positive effect where single inoculations are ineffective. Growth stimulation by inoculation requires microorganisms with phytoeffective metabolic characteristics and the ability to survive in the rhizosphere during the growth period. Another prerequisite is an adequate supply of plant assimilates for the production of microbial phytoeffective metabolites. Type of inoculum, method of inoculation and agricultural measures can influence the effect of the inoculation. Research is necessary to extend our knowledge both of basic principles, and about using microorganisms in practice.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Soil tillage ; Rhizosphere microorganisms ; Cereals ; Nitrogen fixation ; Gaeumanomyces graminis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  In long-term field experiments on sandy loam and loamy sand soils, the influence of conservation and conventional tillage on soil and rhizosphere microorganisms was studied. Conservation tillage stimulated rhizosphere bacteria on winter wheat, winter barley, winter rye and maize in different soil layers. Particularly the populations of Agrobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were increased. On the sandy loam, N2 fixation and nodulation of pea plants were significantly increased. No influence of different soil tillage was determined on the colonization of the rhizosphere by mycorrhiza and saprophytic fungi. Stubble residues infected with Gaeumanomyces graminis were infectious for a longer time on the soil surface than after incorporation into the soil.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 192 (1961), S. 649-650 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The motor is shown in Fig. 1 and consists of a disk, made from an insulating material, which is mounted on a spindle, and three pairs of electrodes mounted circumferentially around the disk. The electrodes are alternately connected to the positive and negative terminals of a source of high-voltage ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0951-4198
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry was used for the characterization of extracted and synthesized oligo(ethylene terephthalate)s. Generally, cyclic oligomers [GT]n could be found in technical yarns and tiles, whereas our synthesized model oligomers mainly consisted of linear chains H—[GT]n—G. In addition, some other distributions could be identified as H—[GT]n—OH and H—[GGT]1—[GT]n-1—G linear oligomers and H—[GGT]1—[GT]n-1 cyclic oligomers, where G is an ethylene glycol unit, GG is a diethylene glycol unit, caused by impurities of ethylene glycol, and T is a terephthalic acid unit. NMR and IR investigations were carried out to verify these results.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung N-Methyl-β-aminopropionsäure-Harz bindet infolge Komplexbildung Cu2+, UO2 2+, Bi3+, Cr3+ und Fe3+, während Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Be2+, Tl+, NH4 +, Alkali-, Erdalkali- und Seltenerdionen keine Kapazität zeigen. Durch Variation des pH-Wertes, der Temperatur und Neutralsalzzusatz kann die Selektivität noch erhöht werden. Die analytische Anwendbarkeit wird an Hand von Trennungen binärer Gemische belegt, die oft als Filtrationsverfahren mit geringem Arbeits- und Zeitaufwand durchgeführt werden können.
    Notes: Summary N-Methyl-β-aminopropionic acid (MAP) containing resin binds Cu2+, UO2 2+, Bi3+, Cr3+ and Fe3+ due to its coordinating tendencies, whereas Ni2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Be2+, Tl+, NH4 +, alkalines, alkaline earths and rare earths are not retained. The selectivity can be increased by variation of pH, temperature and inert-salt background. Analytical applications have been shown by separations of binary mixtures. Sometimes these separations are simple and rapid filtration operations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The hydrolytic degradation of technical poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was investigated by means of different methods such as size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), viscometry, light-scattering, thin-layer chromatography, end-group titration, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The long-term degradation was simulated by exposing PET filament yarns to aqueous neutral conditions at 90°C for up to 18 weeks. By means of MALDI-MS and thin-layer chromatography, the formation of different oligomers was obtained during polymer degradation. As expected, an ester scission process was found generating acid terminated oligomers (H-[GT]m-OH) and T-[GT]m-OH and ethylene glycol terminated oligomers (H-[GT]m-G), where G is an ethylene glycol unit and T is a terephthalic acid unit. Additionally, the scission of the ester bonds during the chemical treatment led to a strong decrease in the number of cyclic oligomers ([GT]m). The occurrence of di-acid terminated species demonstrated a high degree of degradation. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 35: 2183-2192, 1997
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 22 (1987), S. 1635-1641 
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The phase relations of the ternary system Cu-In-Se were studied at 750° C by quenching experiments. Special attention was given to the region CuInSe2In2Se3-In4Se3. Only four ternary phases with extended homogeneity ranges were found to exist. They were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, electron microprobe analysis (EK8PA)' end optical microscopy. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) investigations allowed us to construct theT-x diagram of the Cu2Se-In2Se3. out between 47 and 100 mol% In2Se3. Besides, it was also possible to give a tentative diagram of the solid-liquid equilibria at 750° C and to get some information on the sub-solid existence fields beside the Cu2Se-In2Se3 cut.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The crystal structure of a Cu-richβ-phase in the system Cu-In-Se with the composition Cu14.0In16.7Se32 quenched from 750° C, has been determined with single crystals. The investigated single crystal of this Cu-richβ-phase has the composition Cu14In16.7Se32 and crystallizes witha = 1.1534(4) nm in the space groupP−43m. The cations are statistically distributed together with vacancies, but show strong preferences for distinct positions. The number of vacancies is estimated from the crystal structure analyses and is found to be much less than in the Cu-poorβ-phase. The crystal structure is compared with that of an ordered Cu-richβ-phase.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 6 (1987), S. 495-496 
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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