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  • 1
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    Danish Institute for Fisheries Research
    In:  Dana, 10 . pp. 179-201.
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-11
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-20
    Description: Fish stock development in the Central Baltic Sea (1976-2000) in relation to variability in the environment - DTU Orbit (15/04/14) Fish stock development in the Central Baltic Sea (1976-2000) in relation to variability in the environment - DTU Orbit (15/04/14) Köster F, Möllmann C, Neuenfeldt S, Vinther M, St. John M, Tomkiewicz J et al. Fish stock development in the Central Baltic Sea (1976-2000) in relation to variability in the environment. I C E S Marine Science Symposia. 2003;219:294-306
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-21
    Description: The eastern Baltic cod stock has recently started to recover, after two decades of severe depletion, however with unexpected side effects. The stock has not re-occupied its former wide distribution range, but remains concentrated in a limited area in the southern Baltic Sea. The biomass of forage fish, i.e., sprat and herring, is historic low in this area, which in combination with increasing cod stock results in locally high predation mortality of forage fish and cannibalism of cod. In line with low prey availability, body weight and nutritional condition of cod drastically declined. In the southern Baltic Sea, cod competes with pelagic fisheries for the limited resources of sprat and herring, while the largest biomass of these species is currently found outside the distribution range of cod. Accounting for spatial overlap between species is crucial in developing ecosystem based fisheries management to enhance the recovery of predator stocks.
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  • 5
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    In:  [Other] In: Pan-Baltic workshop co-organised by NORDEN and BIO C3, 04.-05.09.2014, Charlottenlund Castle, Denmark .
    Publication Date: 2015-02-12
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-21
    Description: Background. The Gotland Basin spawning ground is one of three main spawning areas of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758. The threshold water parameters for cod development are the salinity exceeding 11‰ and the oxygen level above 2 mL· L–1. Such conditions are only present when the 11‰ isohaline is above the 2 mL· L–1 isooxygen. In such situation the water volume between the isolines is called the “suitable reproduction volume”. When the position of the isolines is reversed, the salinity and the oxygen level of the water layer demarcated by them are below the required thresholds and as such the water is unsuitable for the cod development. We refer to it as the “unsuitable reproduction volume”. The main aim of the presently reported study was to examine whether variations in suitable and unsuitable reproduction habitat estimates could explain the fluctuations in cod recruitment. Materials and Methods. The suitable and unsuitable reproduction volumes in the Gotland Basin were estimated based on single point observations at three oceanographic monitoring stations using the contouring software Balthypsograph. To test the spatial hydrological heterogeneity in the Gotland Basin we used 15 observations during 1969–1995 on four stations in each of two transects. The oceanographic monitoring and demersal trawl research survey data from 1974–2012 have been used in analyses. Results. The sufficient reproduction conditions in the southern Gotland Basin persisted only until 1981. In later decades the reproduction potential of the Gotland Basin has decreased. The latest major North Sea water inflows in 1993 and 2003 in the Central Gotland Basin formed the suitable reproduction volume below the layers where cod eggs are floating. A significant relation between the recruit abundance and suitable and the unsuitable reproduction volumes was found only for the Southern Gotland Basin (P 〈 0.03). Conclusion. We demonstrated that single-point estimates sufficiently quantify the reproduction conditions in the Gotland Basin and thus can be used for estimation of the reproduction volumes. The unsuitable reproduction volume concept can be used as an ecological indicator for egg survival probability in the Gotland Basin. However, it is too premature to re-define the concept of the suitable reproduction volume because it is applicable only to the Gotland spawning ground.
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  • 7
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    Inter Research
    In:  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 303 . pp. 259-267.
    Publication Date: 2018-05-31
    Description: Embryo survival, larval standard length, yolk-sac area, yolk utilization and resistance to starvation were significantly influenced by the female parent and the interaction between both parents of Baltic Sea cod Gadus morhua in a gamete factorial cross of 3 females and 5 males in all possible combinations. The proportion of variance in embryonic survivorship that was due to maternity during incubation was significant during the first 4 d, but was insignificant during the 5 to 9 d interval. During the 5 to 9 d interval, the male–female interaction was significant. Standard lengths at hatch and 5 d post hatch and specific growth rate of unfed yolk-sac larvae were strongly influenced by the female. Equivalent amounts of variation in larval resistance to starvation were explained by maternity and bi-parental interaction. Paternity alone did not explain a significant amount of variation for the traits or processes examined. The bi-parental interactions reported demonstrate a female’s choice of mate could significantly influence the early life survivorship of Baltic cod offspring.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-07
    Description: Quantitative data collected with different bottom trawls at the Great Meteor Seamount (subtropical NE Atlantic, 30°N; 28.5°W) in 1967, 1970 and 1998 are compared. Bootstrap estimates of total catch per unit effort increased from 6.96 and 10.8 ind. m–1 h–1 in 1967 and 1970, respectively, to 583.98 ind. m–1 h–1 in 1998. Gear effects and an effect of gear over time accounted for 47.1% and 20% of species variability. Further significant factors were time of day and habitat, while season was not significant. A total of 43 species was collected. Including supplementary species information, a grand total of 46 species was found associated with the Great Meteor Seamount. Diversity was higher in 1967 and 1970 (Shannon's diversity: H′=2.5 and 1.6) than in 1998 (H′=0.9). Species–environment relationships are discussed in terms of a sound-scattering layer–interception hypothesis, i.e. utilisation of prey from a diurnally moving sound-scattering layer for the bentho-pelagic community. This is probably augmented by concentration effects in a circular current around the seamount (Taylor-column). Long-term changes are discussed with respect to a decrease in biodiversity due to considerable increases in Macroramphosus scolopax and Capros aper. In 1998, the increase of abundance of Trachurus picturatus and the respective decreases for genuine benthic species were likely to have been caused by a change of gear.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-09
    Description: The sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus S.) population size in the Bornholm Basin, one of the major spawning areas of the species in the Baltic Sea, was estimated with the daily egg production method. Egg abundance, stock structure, sexual and gonadal maturation, spawning frequency and the batch fecundity of sprat throughout the sprat spawning season were simultaneously investigated to obtain an estimate of the population size at spawning time. The results confirmed the population estimate from a hydroacoustic survey, but contrasted spatially down-scaled results from an area dis-aggregated stock assessment model applying fisheries statistics. Conflicting results from both latter methods have previously hampered quantitative studies on recruitment processes of sprat and cod, for example the estimation of predation pressure on cod eggs by sprat. The egg production method did not allow an estimation of the population size of sprat in the entire assessment area larger than the Bornholm Basin, i.e. ICES sub-division 25. This failure is caused by sprat spawning activity outside the Bornholm Basin, not covered by the standard egg surveys and has consequences for the general applicability of available egg abundance time series to retrospectively estimate sprat stock development.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-05-17
    Description: Large-scale climatic conditions prevailing over the central Baltic Sea resulted in declining salinity and oxygen concentrations in spawning areas of the eastern Baltic cod stock. These changes in hydrography reduced the reproductive success and, combined with high fishing pressure, caused a decline of the stock to the lowest level on record in the early 1990s. The present study aims at disentangling the interactions between reproductive effort and hydrographic forcing leading to variable recruitment. Based on identified key processes, stock dynamics is explained using updated environmental and life stage-specific abundance and production time-series. Declining salinities and oxygen concentrations caused high egg mortalities and indirectly increased egg predation by clupeid fish. Low recruitment, despite enhanced hydrographic conditions for egg survival in the mid-1990s, was due to food limitation for larvae, caused by the decline in the abundance of the copepod Pseudocalanus sp. The case of the eastern Baltic cod stock exemplifies the multitude effects climatic variability may have on a fish stock and underscores the importance of knowledge of these processes for understanding stock dynamics.
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