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  • 1
    Call number: PIK W 511-10-0088
    In: Ecological studies
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Part A Introduction ; 1 The Functional Significance of Forest Diversity: The Starting Point ; 2 An Introduction to the Functional Diversity of Temperate Forest Trees ; Part B Productivity and Growth ; 3 Diversity and Productivity in Forests: Evidence from Long-Term Experimental Plots ; 4 Confounding Factors in the Observed Productivity-Diversity Relationship in Forests ; 5 Genetic Diversity Parameters Associated with Viability Selection, Reproductive Efficiency and Growth in Forest Tree Species ; Part C Biogeochemical Cycles ; 6 Functioning of Mixed-species Stands: Evidence from a Long-Term Forest Experiment ; 7 The Role of Biodiversity on the Evaporation of Forests ; 8 Effects of Tree Species Diversity on Litter Quality and Decomposition ; 9 The Effect of Biodiversity on Carbon Storage in Soils ; 10 Silviculture and Its Interaction with Biodiversity and the Carbon Balance of Forest Soils ; Part D Animals, Pests, and Disturbances ; 11 Linkages Between Tree Diversity, Soil Faunaand Ecosystem Processes ; 12 A Test of the Biodiversity-Stability Theory: Meta-analysis of Tree Species Diversity Effects on Insect Pest Infestations, and Re-examination of Responsible Factors ; 13 Susceptibility to Fungal Pathogens of Forests Differing in Tree Diversity ; 14 Implication of Forest Diversity in Resistanceto Strong Winds ; 15 Fire Regime and Tree Diversity in Boreal Forests: Implications for the Carbon Cycle ; Part E Perspectives ; 16 The Design of Experimental Tree Plantationsfor Functional Biodiversity Research ; 17 The Functional Significance of Forest Diversity: A Synthesis ; Taxonomic Index (Genera)
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXI, 399 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 3540221913
    Series Statement: Ecological studies 176
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: How might wild relatives of modern cereals have responded to past, and how might they respond to future, atmospheric CO2 enrichment under competitive situations in a dry, low-nutrient environment? In order to test this, Aegilops and Hordeum species, common in semiarid annual grasslands of the Middle East, were grown in nine model ecosystems (400 kg each) with a natural matrix of highly diverse Negev vegetation established on native soil shipped to Basel, Switzerland. In a simulated, seasonally variable climate of the northern Negev, communities experienced a full life-cycle in 280 (preindustrial), 440 (immediate future) and 600 ppm of CO2 (end of the next century). Neither Aegilops (A. kotschyi and A. peregrina), nor Hordeum spontaneum showed a significant biomass response to CO2 concentrations exceeding 280 ppm The reproductive output remained unaffected or even declined (A. peregrina) under elevated CO2. Non-structural carbohydrates in leaf tissues increased and N concentration decreased with increasing CO2 concentration. N concentration, germination success and seedling development of newly formed grains were either unchanged or reduced in response to high CO2 treatment of parent plants. In a separate fertilizer × CO2 trial with A. kotschyi nested in smaller model communities, we found no effect of P addition, but a 2–3-fold biomass increase by NPK addition compared to the unfertilized control. A significant stimulation of biomass by CO2 enrichment (+ 44% between 280 and 600 ppm) was obtained only in the NPK treatment. These data suggest that increased CO2 concentration had little direct effect on growth and reproduction in these ‘wild cereals’ in the recent past, and the same seems to hold for their future, except if N-rich fertilizer is added.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: The relationship between plant species diversity and ecosystem CO2 and water vapour fluxes was investigated for planted calcareous grassland communities composed of 5, 12, or 32 species assembled from the native plant species pool. These diversity manipulations were done in factorial combination with a CO2 enrichment experiment in order to investigate the degree to which ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 are altered by a loss of plant diversity. Ecosystem CO2 and H2O fluxes were measured over several 24-h periods during the 1994 and 1995 growing seasons. Ecosystem CO2 assimilation on a ground area basis decreased with decreasing plant diversity in the first year and this was related to a decline in above-ground plant biomass. In the second year, however, CO2 assimilation was not affected by diversity, and this corresponded to the disappearance of a diversity effect on above-ground biomass. Irrespective of diversity treatment, CO2 assimilation on a ground area basis was linearly related to peak above-ground biomass in both years. Elevated CO2 significantly increased ecosystem CO2 assimilation in both years with no interaction between diversity and CO2 treatment, and no corresponding increase in above-ground biomass. There were no significant effects of diversity on water vapour flux, which was measured only in the second year. There were indications of a small CO2 effect on water vapour flux (3–9% lower at elevated CO2 depending on the light level). Our findings suggest that decreasing plant species diversity may substantially decrease ecosystem CO2 assimilation during the establishment of such planted calcareous grassland communities, but also suggest that this effect may not persist. In addition, we find no evidence that plant species diversity alters the response of ecosystem CO2 assimilation to elevated CO2.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Four- to seven-year-old spruce trees (Picea abies) were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (280, 420 and 560 cm3 m−3) and three rates of wet N deposition (0, 30 and 90 kg ha−1 year−1) for 3 years in a simulated montane forest climate. Six trees from each of six clones were grown in competition in each of nine 100 × 70 × 36 cm model ecosystems with nutrient-poor natural forest soil. Stem dises were analysed using X-ray densitometry. The radial stem increment was not affected by [CO2] but increased with increasing rates of N deposition. Wood density was increased by [CO2], but decreased by N deposition. Wood-starch concentration increased, and wood nitrogen concentration decreased with increasing [CO2], but neither was affected by N deposition. The lignin concentration in wood was affected by neither [CO2] nor N deposition. Our results suggest that, under natural growth conditions, rising atmospheric [CO2] will not lead to enhanced radial stem growth of spruce, but atmospheric N deposition will, and in some regions is probably already doing so. Elevated [CO2], however, will lead to denser wood unless this effect is compensated by massive atmospheric N deposition. If can be speculated that greater wood density under elevated [CO2] may alter the mechanical properties of wood, and higher ratios of C/N and lignin/N in wood grown at elevated [CO2] may affect nutrient cycles of forest ecosystems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 18 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Few of the most common assumptions used in models of responses of plants and ecosystems to elevated CO2 and climate warming have been tested under realistic life con-ditions. It is shown that some unexpected discrepancies between predictions and experimental findings exist, suggesting that a better empirical basis is required for predictions. The following ten suggestions may improve our potential to scale up from experimental scales to the real world.(1) Experiments should be timed to account for non-linearity in system responsiveness, asynchrony of responses and developmental differences. (2) By altering mineral nutrient supply, a wide range of CO2 responses can be ‘produced’, thus requiring realistic soil conditions. (3) Distinctions should be made between ‘doubling CO2 sup-ply’ and biologically effective degrees of CO2 enrichment. (4) Because of the non-linearity of plant responses to CO2, studies of at least three instead of two CO2 concentrations are necessary to describe future trends adequately. (5) Edge effects, in particular unscreened side light, may lead to allometric anomalies, strongly constraining up-scaling to stand-scale CO2 responses. (6) Variables such as growth, yield, net primary production and C turnover are often confused with carbon pools, carbon sequestration or net ecosystem production. (7) Mono- and interspecific interactions between individuals may lead to completely unpredictable CO2 responses. (8) Experiments with seedlings benefit from the absence of prehistory effects but are likely to be irrelevant for the responses of larger trees which, on the other hand, may be constrained by carry-over effects. Tree ring research indicates immediate sensitivity of large trees to environmental changes, supporting their usefulness in short-term CO2-enrichment experiments. (9) In predicting temperature responses, acclimation deserves more attention. (10) The significance of developmental responses is largely under-represented in experimental research, although these responses may overrule many of the other effects of atmospheric change. Results of more realistic experiments which account for these problems will provide a better basis for modelling the future of the biosphere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 18 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Of the many responses of plants to elevated CO2, accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC in % dry weight) in leaves is one of the most consistent. Insufficient sink activity or transport capacity may explain this obvious disparity between CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate dissipation and structural investment. If transport capacity contributes to the problem, phloem loading may be the crucial step. It has been hypothesized that symplastic phloem loading is less efficient than apoplastic phloem loading, and hence plant species using the symplastic pathway and growing under high light and good water supply should accumulate more TNC at any given CO2 level, but particularly under elevated CO2. We tested this hypothesis by carrying out CO2 enrichment experiments with 28 plant species known to belong to groups of contrasting phloem-loading type. Under current ambient CO2 symplastic loaders were found to accumulate 36% TNC compared with only 19% in apoplastic loaders (P=0.0016). CO2 enrichment to 600 μmol mol−1 increased TNC in both groups by the same absolute amount, bringing the mean TNC level to 41% in symplastic loaders (compared to 25% in apoplastic loaders), which may be close to TNC saturation (coupled with chlornplast malfunction). Eight tree species, ranked as symplastic loaders by their minor vein companion cell configuration, showed TNC responses more similar to those of apoplastic herbaceous loaders. Similar results are obtained when TNC is expressed on a unit leaf area basis, since mean specific leaf areas of groups were not significantly different. We conclude that phloem loading has a surprisingly strong effect on leaf tissue composition, and thus may translate into alterations of food webs and ecosystem functioning, particularly under high CO2.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 26 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The current carbon supply status of temperate forest trees was assessed by analysing the seasonal variation of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in leaves, branch wood and stem sapwood of 10 tree species (six deciduous broad-leafed, one deciduous conifer and three evergreen conifer trees) in a temperate forest that is approximately 100 years old. In addition, all woody tissue was analysed for lipids (acylglycerols). The major NSC fractions were starch, sucrose, glucose and fructose, with other carbohydrates (e.g. raffinose and stachyose) and sugar alcohols (cyclitols and sorbitol) playing only a minor quantitative role. The radial distribution of NSC within entire stem cores, assessed here for the first time in a direct interspecific comparison, revealed large differences in the size of the active sapwood fraction among the species, reflecting the specific wood anatomy (ring-porous versus diffuse-porous xylem). The mean minimum NSC concentrations in branch wood during the growing season was 55% of maximum, and even high NSC concentrations were maintained during times of extensive fruit production in masting Fagus sylvestris. The NSC in stem sapwood varied very little throughout the season (cross species mean never below 67% of maximum), and the small reductions observed were not significant for any of the investigated species. Although some species contained substantial quantities of lipids in woody tissues (‘fat trees’; Tilia, Pinus, Picea, Larix), the lipid pools did not vary significantly across the growing season in any species. On average, the carbon stores of deciduous trees would permit to replace the whole leave canopy four times. These data imply that there is not a lot of leeway for a further stimulation of growth by ongoing atmospheric CO2 enrichment. The classical view that deciduous trees rely more on C-reserves than evergreen trees, seems unwarranted or has lost its justification due to the greater than 30% increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last 150 years.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The hypothesis that plants grown under elevated CO2 allocate more carbon to the production of latex and C-rich secondary compounds whereas nutrient addition counteracts this effect was tested. Two similar experiments were conducted in two different experimental facilities. In both facilities seedlings of Euphorbia lathyris were exposed to factorial combinations of two CO2 concentrations and two levels of nutrient availability for 2 months. The CO2 treatments and growth conditions differed substantially between these two experiments but treatment responses to elevated CO2 and fertilizer addition were remarkably similar, underlining the robustness of our findings. Elevated CO2 increased biomass to a greater extent in fertilized than in unfertilized  plants  and  reduced  the  leaf  biomass  fraction by accelerating leaf senescence. Concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) increased in elevated CO2. However, this apparent carbon surplus did not feed into the whole plant latex pool. The latex harvest per leaf (−25%) and the concentration of latex-related hydrocarbons (−20%) even decreased under elevated CO2 (both experiments P 〈 0.05). Fertilization reduced NSC concentrations (−25%) but neither affected latex yield per leaf nor the concentration of latex-related hydrocarbons. It is concluded that latex and related hydrocarbons in CO2-enriched plants are a negligible sink for excess carbon irrespective of nutrient status and thus, vigour of growth.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This study is part of a series of investigations on the influence of altitude on structure and function of plant leaves. Unlike most other mountain areas, the Southern Alps of New Zealand provide localities where physiologically effective moisture stress occurs neither at high nor at low elevation, but the changes in temperature and radiation with elevation are similar or even steeper than in most other regions. In comparison with results from other mountains, where moisture may impair plant functioning at low elevation, this study allows an estimation of the relative role of water for the expression of various leaf features typically associated with alpine plants. Maximum leaf diffusive conductance (g), leaf nitrogen content (LN), stomatal density (n) and distribution, as well as area (A), thickness (d) and specific area (SLA) of leaves were studied. Three different plant life forms were investigated over their full altitudinal range (m): trees, represented by Nothofagus menziesii (1,200 m), ericaceous dwarf shrubs (1,700 m), and herbaceous plants of the genus Ranunculus (2,500 m). In all three life forms g, LN, and n increased, while SLA and A decreased with elevation. Recent investigations have found similar trends in other mountains from the temperate zone, but the changes are larger in New Zealand than elsewhere. Herbs show the greatest differences, followed by shrubs and then trees. It is concluded that g is dependent upon light climate rather than water supply, whereas SLA and related structural features appear to be controlled by the temperature regime, as they show similar altitudinal changes under different light and moisture gradients. The higher leaf nitrogen content found at high elevations in all three life forms, suggests that metabolic activity of mature leaves is not restricted by low nitrogen supply at high altitude. In general, the leaves of herbaceous plants show more pronounced structural and functional changes with altitude than the leaves of shrubs and trees.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Alpine ecology ; CO2 ; Climate ; δ13C ; Leaf structure ; Oxygen ; Photosynthesis ; Temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In an earlier paper we provided evidence that carbon isotope discrimination during photosynthesis of terrestrial C3 plants decreases with altitude, and it was found that this was associated with greater carboxylation efficiency at high altitudes. Changing partial pressures of CO2 and O2 and changing temperature are possible explanations, since influences of moisture and light were reduced to a minimum by selective sampling. Here we analyse plants sampled using the same criteria, but from high and low altitudes along latitudinal gradients from the equator to the polar ends of plant distribution. These data should permit separation of the pressure and temperature components (Fig. 1). Only leaves of fully sunlit, non-water-stressed, herbaceous C3 plants are compared. The survey covers pressure differences of 400 mbar (ca. 5000 m) and 78 degrees of latitude (ca 25 K of mean temperature of growth period). When habitats of similar low temperature (i.e. high altitude at low latitude and low altitude at polar latitude) are compared, discrimination increases towards the pole (with decreasing altitude and thus increasing atmospheric pressure). Latitudinally decreasing temperature at almost constant atmospheric pressure (samples from low altitude) is associated with a decrease in discrimination. So, polar low-altitude plants have δ13C values half way between humid tropical lowland and tropical alpine plants. It is unlikely that latitudinal changes of the light regime had an effect, since low and high altitude plants show contrasting latitudinal trends in δ13C although local altitudinal differences in overall light consumption were small. These results suggest that both temperature and atmospheric pressure are responsible for the altitudinal trends in 13C discrimination. Temperature effects may partly be related to increased leaf thickness (within the same leaf type) in cold environments. Theoretical considerations and laboratory experiments suggest that it is the oxygen partial pressure that is responsible for the pressure related change in discrimination. The study also provided results of practical significance for the use of carbon isotope data. Within a community of C3 plants, discrimination in species of similar life form, exposed to similar light, water and ambient CO2 conditions ranges over 4‰, with standard deviations for 10–30 species of ±0.6 to 1.2‰. This natural variation has to be taken into account by using a sufficient sample size and standardization of sampling in any attempt at ecological site characterization using carbon isotope data. Evidence of a pronounced genotypic component of this variation in 13C discrimination in wild C3 plant species is provided. Correlations with dry matter partitioning, mesophyll thickness and nitrogen content are also present.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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