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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin : Verlag Technik
    Call number: MOP B 18586
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 140 S. : graph. Darst.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Braunschweig : Westermann
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 22/M 13.0033
    In: Heimat und Welt
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 112 S. : zahlr. Ill., graph. Darst., Kt
    Edition: Für Thüringen [Regelschule, Gymnasium], [Neubearb.], Dr. A.
    ISBN: 9783141446913
    Series Statement: Heimat und Welt
    Location: Reading room/gallery
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 113 (1939), S. 306-322 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wurden im Tl II-Spektrum eine größere Zahl von Linien erstmalig auf Hyperfeinstruktur und Isotopieverschiebung untersucht. Alle magnetischen Aufspaltungen und Isotopieverschiebungen konnten in ein einheitliches Termschema eingeordnet werden. Die Isotopieverschiebungen in der 6s n s1S0-Termserie ergaben bei sinngemäßer Normierung genügende Übereinstimmung mit dem von der Theorie geforderten 1/n α 3 -Gesetz. Die nach der Breitschen Theorie des Isotopieverschiebungseffektes berechneten Absolutwerte werden etwa um einen Faktor 2 zu groß. Die Schwerpunktsverschiebung geht in allen Termen in dem Sinne, wie es die Theorie verlangt: Die Tl203-Terme liegen tiefer als die Tl205-Terme.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-28
    Description: Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a 'quick fix' option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ~30%.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-11-28
    Description: Chemical weathering is an integral part of both the rock and carbon cycles and is being affected by changes in land use, particularly as a result of agricultural practices such as tilling, mineral fertilization, or liming to adjust soil pH. These human activities have already altered the chemical terrestrial cycles and land-ocean flux of major elements, although the extent remains difficult to quantify. When deployed on a grand scale, Enhanced Weathering (a form of mineral fertilization), the application of finely ground minerals over the land surface, could be used to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. The release of cations during the dissolution of such silicate minerals would convert dissolved CO2 to bicarbonate, increasing the alkalinity and pH of natural waters. Some products of mineral dissolution would precipitate in soils or taken up by ecosystems, but a significant portion would be transported to the coastal zone and the open ocean, where the increase in alkalinity would partially counteract “ocean acidification” associated with the current marked increase in atmospheric CO2. Other elements released during this mineral dissolution, like Si, P or K, could stimulate biological productivity, further helping to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. On land, the terrestrial carbon-pool would likely increase in response to Enhanced Weathering in areas where ecosystem growth rates are currently limited by one of the nutrients that would be released during mineral dissolution. In the ocean, the biological carbon pumps (which export organic matter and CaCO3 to the deep ocean) may be altered by the resulting influx of nutrients and alkalinity to the ocean. This review merges current interdisciplinary knowledge about Enhanced Weathering, the processes involved, and the applicability as well as some of the consequences and risks of applying the method.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-11-28
    Description: The reconstruction of the stable carbon isotope evolution in atmospheric CO2 (δ13Catm), as archived in Antarctic ice cores, bears the potential to disentangle the contributions of the different carbon cycle fluxes causing past CO2 variations. Here we present a new record of δ13Catm before, during and after the Marine Isotope Stage 5.5 (155 000 to 105 000 yr BP). The dataset is archived on the data repository PANGEA® (www.pangea.de) under 10.1594/PANGAEA.817041. The record was derived with a well established sublimation method using ice from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and the Talos Dome ice cores in East Antarctica. We find a 0.4‰ shift to heavier values between the mean δ13Catm level in the Penultimate (~ 140 000 yr BP) and Last Glacial Maximum (~ 22 000 yr BP), which can be explained by either (i) changes in the isotopic composition or (ii) intensity of the carbon input fluxes to the combined ocean/atmosphere carbon reservoir or (iii) by long-term peat buildup. Our isotopic data suggest that the carbon cycle evolution along Termination II and the subsequent interglacial was controlled by essentially the same processes as during the last 24 000 yr, but with different phasing and magnitudes. Furthermore, a 5000 yr lag in the CO2 decline relative to EDC temperatures is confirmed during the glacial inception at the end of MIS5.5 (120 000 yr BP). Based on our isotopic data this lag can be explained by terrestrial carbon release and carbonate compensation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-11-28
    Description: We explore the impact of a latitudinal shift in the westerly wind belt over the Southern Ocean on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and on the carbon cycle for Last Glacial Maximum background conditions using a state-of-the-art ocean general circulation model. We find that a southward (northward) shift in the westerly winds leads to an intensification (weakening) of no more than 10% of the AMOC. This response of the ocean physics to shifting winds agrees with other studies starting from pre-industrial background climate, but the responsible processes are different. In our setup changes in AMOC seemed to be more pulled by upwelling in the south than pushed by down-welling in the north, opposite to what previous studies with different background climate are suggesting. The net effects of the changes in ocean circulation lead to a rise in atmospheric pCO2 of less than 10 μatm for both a northward and a southward shift in the winds. For northward shifted winds the zone of upwelling of carbon and nutrient rich waters in the Southern Ocean is expanded, leading to more CO2 out-gassing to the atmosphere but also to an enhanced biological pump in the subpolar region. For southward shifted winds the upwelling region contracts around Antarctica leading to less nutrient export northwards and thus a weakening of the biological pump. These model results do not support the idea that shifts in the westerly wind belt play a dominant role in coupling atmospheric CO2 rise and Antarctic temperature during deglaciation suggested by the ice core data.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-05-05
    Description: Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) during the last deglaciation (∼18–10 kyr BP) switched around 14.6 kyr BP from a rather gradual rise to an abrupt jump, which is recorded in ice cores as an increase of 10 ppmv in less than two centuries. So far the source of that CO2 excursion could not be identified and the climatic implications are largely unknown. Here we use highly resolved U/Th dated atmospheric ∆14C from Tahiti corals as independent age control for CO2 changes. This provides a temporal framework to show that the northern high latitude warming into the Bølling/Allerød occurred quasi-synchronous to this CO2 rise within a few decades. Furthermore we show that an abrupt release (within two centuries) of long-term immobile nearly 14C-free carbon (∼125 PgC) from thawing permafrost might explain the observed anomalies in atmospheric CO2 and ∆14C, in line with CH4 and biomarker records from ice and sediment cores. In transient climate simulations we show that the abrupt carbon release in the northern high latitudes and associated CO2 changes bear the potential to modulate Antarctic temperature. These findings are in agreement with the observed onset of the Antarctic Cold Reversal about two centuries after the beginning of the Bølling/Allerød, as detected in independent annual layer-counted ice cores from both hemispheres. Based on the timing, magnitude, origin and the inter-hemispheric impact we speculate that this abrupt deglacial release of long-term stored carbon via thawing permafrost might have provided the final push out of the last ice age.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-05-05
    Description: The equilibrium (Charney) climate sensitivity, here indicated by Sa, is the equilibrium change in Earth’s global mean surface temperature due to a radiative forcing associated with a doubling of pCO2, the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Although known for decades, little progress has been made in constraining upper and lower limits for climate sensitivity. Originally, Sa was derived from climate models where the atmospheric CO2 concentration is doubled in typically about 100 years. Also palaeo data have been frequently used to determine Sa, and — if slow feedback processes are adequately taken into account — indicate a similar range as those based on climate models used in the IPCC. However, palaeo data usually span a much larger time than the 100 year model experiments. Here, we focus on the last 800 kyr, where climate variability has occurred on time scales ranging from the 100.000- year ice-age cycles to millennial-scale climate variations. The traditional linear and equilibrium concept of climate sensitivity as is applied in typical (short time scale) climate model simulations might not apply to the climate system’s non-stationary and non-linear response to changing forcing. One example is the background state dependency of the fast feedback processes. In this presentation, we assess the dependency of the fast feedback processes on the background climate state using data of the last 800 kyr and a conceptual climate model. Though still (locally) linear, we propose a different approach to estimate climate sensi- tivity which better accounts for a possible state dependency of the fast feedbacks. This approach uses local slopes of temperature versus radiative perturbation and is most suitable for palaeo-data spanning a range of background climate states. We find the specific climate sensitivities generally lower during cold (glacial) than during warm periods. Within the conceptual climate model we further estimate how the background state-dependency of the fast feed- back processes might affect the distributions of feedback factors and projected temperature change when noise is included in the forcing of the model. In particular, we investigate the appearance of small but finite probabili- ties of a very large temperature response and how the shape of the response distribution might be related to state dependency.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-12-09
    Description: Steinthorsdottir et al. (2014) used a previously published stomata-based CO2 record (Steinthorsdottir et al., 2013) to argue for a large, abrupt change in atmospheric carbon dioxide at the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) cold interval. Their record implies a 50 ppm CO2 rise followed by a decline by 100 ppm. They compare their results to a hypothetical and highly unlikely simulation sce- nario in which vertical mixing in the ocean is increased by a factor of 100 and wind strength by a factor of 7. They furthermore compare their stomata-based CO2 record with the ice core CO2 re- cord derived from EPICA Dome C (EDC). We here question their interpretation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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