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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The astronomy and astrophysics review 2 (1991), S. 227-247 
    ISSN: 1432-0754
    Keywords: Stars: carbon ; stars: circumstellar matter ; stars: evolution of ; stars: mass loss
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Summary In the solar neighborhood, approximately half of all intermediate mass main sequence stars with initially between 1 and about 5 M⊙become carbon stars with luminosities near 104 L⊙ for typically less than 106 years. These high luminosity carbon stars lose mass at rates nearly always in excess of 10−7 M⊙ yr−1 and sometimes in excess of 10−5 M⊙ yr−1. Locally, close to half of the mass returned into the interstellar medium by intermediate mass stars before they become white dwarfs is during the carbon star phase. A much greater fraction of lower metallicity stars become carbon-rich before they evolve into planetary nebulae than do higher metallicity stars; therefore, carbon stars are much more importan t in the outer than in the inner Galaxy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 395 (1998), S. 144-145 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The discovery of planets in orbit around the pulsar PSR1257+12 (ref. 1) shows that planets may form around post-main-sequence stars. Other evolved stars, such as HD44179 (an evolved star which is part of the binary system that has expelled the gas and dust that make the Red ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometric calibration observations cover approximately 6 square degrees on the sky in 35 'calibration fields,' each sampled in nominal photometric conditions between 562 and 3692 times during the 4 years of the 2MASS mission. We compile a catalog of variables from the calibration observations to search for M dwarfs transited by extrasolar planets. We present our methods for measuring periodic and nonperiodic flux variability. From 7554 sources with apparent K(sub s) magnitudes between 5.6 and 16.1, we identify 247 variables, including extragalactic variables and 23 periodic variables. We have discovered three M dwarf eclipsing systems, including two candidates for transiting extrasolar planets.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series; Volume 175; 191-228
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 266 (1977), S. 702-703 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Carswell et al.z measured the profile of the Lyman a absorption line toward 1331 + 170, from which they estimated that the line centre is redshifted to 3,370 A. From their Fig. 3a, it seems that although the data are noisy, the residual intensity of the line profile reaches a value of 0.5 at about ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 223 (1969), S. 797-799 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Eight pulsars have been searched for signs of periodic modulation of the pulse amplitudes, such as has already been reported for two pulsars. Five more examples of this phenomenon have been ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The IRAS data strongly suggest that there is dust debris around the main-sequence A star HR 4796. The optical depth of the dust cloud around HR 4796 is probably twice that around Beta Pic, the main-sequence star in the Bright Star Catalog which was previously thought to have the most opaque dust debris cloud.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters (ISSN 0004-637X); 383; L79
    Format: text
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  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In the outer envelopes of red giants, when the gas cools sufficiently, molecules and solids form. Thermodynamically, the most stable molecule is CO, and it is usually assumed that all the available carbon and oxygen are consumed in the formation of this molecule (Salpeter 1977). If the carbon abundance is greater than the oxygen abundance, then the carbon left over after the formation of CO is available for solid grains. Because carbon is by far the most abundant species available for making solids in these environments, researchers anticipate that the grains are composed of nearly pure carbon in some form. The observations which can be used to infer the nature of this solid phase carbon are discussed. The observations of the dust around carbon-rich red giants are discussed. These results are then placed into their broader astrophysical context.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, Carbon in the Galaxy: Studies from Earth and Space; p 39-45
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: There is an enormous range in the properties of stars that are losing mass. The red giants responsible for injecting roughly half or more of the material into the interstellar medium are reviewed. The physical properties are described for the out flowing gases. Broadband observation constaints on the dust are described by use of spectrum analysis. Circumstellar dust is identified by carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Washington. Interrleationships among Circumstellar, Interstellar and Interplanetary Dust; p 3-18
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Astrophysics and space science 251 (1997), S. 81-88 
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We propose that at least two stars on or near the AGB have long-lived orbiting disks: HD 44179, the central star in the Red Rectangle, and BM Gem, a carbon-rich star with an oxygen-rich circumstellar envelope. The CO emission from both of these disks has a spike with a width near ∼2 km s−1, indicating disk radii of ∼1016 cm. The dust in such disks is therefore quite cold (near T ∼ 50 K for the Red Rectangle) and may emit primarily at submillimeter wavelengths. The disks around stars where there is also substantial mass loss may not be easily observable; there could be many as yet undiscovered disks around AGB stars
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Astrophysics and space science 217 (1994), S. 101-104 
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Red Giants on the Asymptotic Giant Branch typically are more luminous than M K = -7 mag. Therefore, a new Two Micron Sky Survey which will go as faint as m K = 10 mag will be able to observe most of these stars in the Milky Way. Such a complete census will enable us to develop a much better understanding of Galactic Structure. It will be important to separate the luminous red giants into their different subclasses because these subclasses trace different Galactic Populations. For example, Miras with periods less than 300 days can be used to study the “thick disk” while Miras with periods greater than 300 days belong to the “thin disk”.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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