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  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31 (11). pp. 3214-3229.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: A densely spaced hydrographic survey of the northern Irminger Basin together with satellite-tracked near-surface drifters confirm the intense mesoscale variability within and above the Denmark Strait overflow. In particular, the drifters show distinct cyclonic vortices over the downslope edge of the outflow plume. Growing perturbations such as these can be attributed to the baroclinic instability of a density current. A primitive equation model with periodic boundaries is used to simulate the destabilization of an idealized dense filament on a continental slope that resembles the northeastern Irminger Basin. Unstable waves evolve rapidly if the initial temperature profile is perturbed with a sinusoidal anomaly that exceeds a certain cutoff wavelength. As the waves grow to large amplitudes isolated eddies of both signs develop. Anticyclones form initially within the dense filament and are rich in overflow water. In contrast, cyclones form initially with their center in the ambient water but wrap outflow water around their center, thus containing a mixture of both water types. The nonlinear advection of waters that were originally located within the front between both water masses contributes most significantly to the stronger intensification of the cyclones in comparison with anticyclones. The frontal waters carry positive relative vorticity into the center of the cyclone. The process bears therefore some resemblance to atmospheric frontal cyclogenesis. After saturation there is a bottom jet of overflow water that is confined by counterrotating eddies: anticyclones upslope and cyclones downslope of the overflow core. The parameter dependence of the maximum growth rate is studied, and the implications of eddy-induced mixing for the water mass modification is discussed.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    Springer
    In:  In: Arctic–Subarctic Ocean Fluxes. , ed. by Dickson, R. R., Meincke, J. and Rhines, P. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 527-549. ISBN 978-1-4020-6773-0
    Publication Date: 2015-09-23
    Description: The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is part of a global redistribution system in the ocean that carries vast amounts of mass, heat, and freshwater. Within the AMOC, water mass transformations in the Nordic Seas (NS) and the overflows across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) contribute significantly to the overturning mass transport. The deep NS are separated by the GSR from direct exchange with the subpolar North Atlantic. Two deeper passages, Denmark Strait (DS, sill depth 630 m) and Faroe Bank Channel (FBC, sill depth 840 m), constrain the deep outflow. The outflow transports are assumed to be governed by hydraulic control (Whitehead 1989, 1998). According to the circulation scheme by Dickson and Brown (1994), there is an overflow of 2.9 Sv (1 Sv = 1 Sverdrup = 106 m3 s–1) through DS, 1.7 Sv through FBC and another 1 Sv from flow across the Iceland%Faroe Ridge (IFR). To the south of the GSR, the overflows sink to depth and then spread along the topography, eventually merging to form a deep boundary current in the western Irminger Sea. During the descent, the dense bottom water flow doubles its volume by entrainment of ambient waters (e.g. Price and Baringer 1994) so that there is a deep water transport of 13.3 Sv once the boundary current reaches Cape Farvel (Dickson and Brown 1994). Thus the overflows and the overflow-related part of the AMOC account for more than 70% of the maximum total overturning, which is estimated from observations to be about 18 Sv (e.g. Macdonald 1998)
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is an endorsed project in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). OMIP addresses CMIP6 science questions, investigating the origins and consequences of systematic model biases. It does so by providing a framework for evaluating (including assessment of systematic biases), understanding, and improving ocean, sea-ice, tracer, and biogeochemical components of climate and earth system models contributing to CMIP6. Among the WCRP Grand Challenges in climate science (GCs), OMIP primarily contributes to the regional sea level change and near-term (climate/decadal) prediction GCs. OMIP provides (a) an experimental protocol for global ocean/sea-ice models run with a prescribed atmospheric forcing; and (b) a protocol for ocean diagnostics to be saved as part of CMIP6. We focus here on the physical component of OMIP, with a companion paper (Orr et al., 2016) detailing methods for the inert chemistry and interactive biogeochemistry. The physical portion of the OMIP experimental protocol follows the interannual Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). Since 2009, CORE-I (Normal Year Forcing) and CORE-II (Interannual Forcing) have become the standard methods to evaluate global ocean/sea-ice simulations and to examine mechanisms for forced ocean climate variability. The OMIP diagnostic protocol is relevant for any ocean model component of CMIP6, including the DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima experiments), historical simulations, FAFMIP (Flux Anomaly Forced MIP), C4MIP (Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate MIP), DAMIP (Detection and Attribution MIP), DCPP (Decadal Climate Prediction Project), ScenarioMIP, HighResMIP (High Resolution MIP), as well as the ocean/sea-ice OMIP simulations
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The pre-industrial millennium is among the periods selected by the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) for experiments contributing to the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and the fourth phase of the PMIP (PMIP4). The past1000 transient simulations serve to investigate the response to (mainly) natural forcing under background conditions not too different from today, and to discriminate between forced and internally generated variability on interannual to centennial timescales. This paper describes the motivation and the experimental set-ups for the PMIP4-CMIP6 past1000 simulations, and discusses the forcing agents orbital, solar, volcanic, and land use/land cover changes, and variations in greenhouse gas concentrations. The past1000 simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium from 850 Common Era (CE) to 1849 CE have to be complemented by historical simulations (1850 to 2014 CE) following the CMIP6 protocol. The external forcings for the past1000 experiments have been adapted to provide a seamless transition across these time periods. Protocols for the past1000 simulations have been divided into three tiers. A default forcing data set has been defined for the Tier 1 (the CMIP6 past1000) experiment. However, the PMIP community has maintained the flexibility to conduct coordinated sensitivity experiments to explore uncertainty in forcing reconstructions as well as parameter uncertainty in dedicated Tier 2 simulations. Additional experiments (Tier 3) are defined to foster collaborative model experiments focusing on the early instrumental period and to extend the temporal range and the scope of the simulations. This paper outlines current and future research foci and common analyses for collaborative work between the PMIP and the observational communities (reconstructions, instrumental data).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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    Format: archive
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  • 5
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    Kluwer
    In:  In: Sensitivity to Change: Black Sea and North Sea. , ed. by Özsoy, E. and Mikaelyan, A. Kluwer, -, pp. 417-438.
    Publication Date: 2012-01-27
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    AGU / Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 104 (C9). 21,123-21,136.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-17
    Description: The modification of the exchange flow in a deep southern hemisphere passage, resembling the Vema Channel, by frictionally induced secondary circulation is investigated numerically. The hydrostatic primitive equation model is a two-dimensional version of the sigma-coordinate Princeton Ocean Model. The time dependent response of a stratified along-channel flow, forced by barotropic or baroclinic pressure gradients, is examined. Near the bottom, where the along-channel now is retarded, there is cross-channel Ekman nux that is associated with downwelling on the eastern side and upwelling on the western side of the channel. In the presence of stratification the cross-channel flow rearranges the density structure, which in turn acts on the along-channel velocity via the thermal wind relation. Eventually the cross-isobath Ekman flux is shut down. In the case of baroclinically driven flow of Antarctic Bottom Water through the Vema Channel the model reproduces the observed shape of the deep temperature profiles and their cross-channel asymmetry. The model offers an explanation that is alternative or supplementary to inviscid multilayer hydraulic theory that;was proposed in earlier studies. It explains the extremely thick bottom boundary layers in the center and on the western slope of the channel. The deep thermocline is spread out in the west and sharpened in the east, and the coldest water is found on the eastern side of the deep trough; The modified density field reduces the along-channel flow near the bottom and focuses it into a narrow jet on the eastern side of the channel.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This paper is the first of a series of four GMD (Geoscientific Model Development) papers on the PMIP4-CMIP6 (Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project - Phase 4 -- Coupled Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 6) experiments. Part 2 (Otto-Bliesner et al., 2017) gives details about the two PMIP4-CMIP6 interglacial experiments, Part 3 (Jungclaus et al., 2017) about the last millennium experiment, and Part 4 (Kageyama et al., 2017) about the Last Glacial Maximum experiment. The mid-Pliocene Warm Period experiment is part of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) - Phase 2, detailed in Haywood et al. (2016). The goal of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) is to understand the response of the climate system to different climate forcings for documented climatic states very different from the present and historical climates. Through comparison with observations of the environmental impact of these climate changes, or with climate reconstructions based on physical, chemical, or biological records, PMIP also addresses the issue of how well state-of-the-art numerical models simulate climate change. Climate models are usually developed using the present and historical climates as references, but climate projections show that future climates will lie well outside these conditions. Palaeoclimates very different from these reference states therefore provide stringent tests for state-of-the-art models and a way to assess whether their sensitivity to forcings is compatible with palaeoclimatic evidence. Simulations of five different periods have been designed to address the objectives of the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6): the millennium prior to the industrial epoch (CMIP6 name: past1000); the mid-Holocene, 6000 years ago (midHolocene); the Last Glacial Maximum, 21,000 years ago (lgm); the Last Interglacial, 127,000 years ago (lig127k); and the mid-Pliocene Warm Period, 3.2 million years ago (midPliocene-eoi400). These climatic periods are well documented by palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records, with climate and environmental changes relevant for the study and projection of future climate changes. This paper describes the motivation for the choice of these periods and the design of the numerical experiments and database requests, with a focus on their novel features compared to the experiments performed in previous phases of PMIP and CMIP. It also outlines the analysis plan that takes advantage of the comparisons of the results across periods and across CMIP6 in collaboration with other MIPs.
    Keywords: Geophysics; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN54260 , Geoscientific Model Development (e-ISSN 1991-9603); 11; 3; 1033-1057
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Water availability is fundamental to societies and ecosystems, but our understanding of variations in hydroclimate (including extreme events, flooding, and decadal periods of drought) is limited because of a paucity of modern instrumental observations that are distributed unevenly across the globe and only span parts of the 20th and 21st centuries. Such data coverage is insufficient for characterizing hydroclimate and its associated dynamics because of its multidecadal to centennial variability and highly regionalized spatial signature. High-resolution (seasonal to decadal) hydroclimatic proxies that span all or parts of the Common Era (CE) and paleoclimate simulations from climate models are therefore important tools for augmenting our understanding of hydroclimate variability. In particular, the comparison of the two sources of information is critical for addressing the uncertainties and limitations of both while enriching each of their interpretations. We review the principal proxy data available for hydroclimatic reconstructions over the CE and highlight the contemporary understanding of how these proxies are interpreted as hydroclimate indicators. We also review the available last-millennium simulations from fully coupled climate models and discuss several outstanding challenges associated with simulating hydroclimate variability and change over the CE. A specific review of simulated hydroclimatic changes forced by volcanic events is provided, as is a discussion of expected improvements in estimated radiative forcings, models, and their implementation in the future. Our review of hydroclimatic proxies and last-millennium model simulations is used as the basis for articulating a variety of considerations and best practices for how to perform proxy-model comparisons of CE hydroclimate. This discussion provides a framework for how best to evaluate hydroclimate variability and its associated dynamics using these comparisons and how they can better inform interpretations of both proxy data and model simulations.We subsequently explore means of using proxy-model comparisons to better constrain and characterize future hydroclimate risks. This is explored specifically in the context of several examples that demonstrate how proxy-model comparisons can be used to quantitatively constrain future hydroclimatic risks as estimated from climate model projections.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN50993 , Climate of the Past (e-ISSN 1814-9332); 13; 12; 1851-1900
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-05
    Description: The climate of the last two millennia was characterised by decadal to multi‐centennial variations which were recorded in terrestrial records and had important societal impacts. The cause of these climatic events is still under debate but changes in the North Atlantic circulation have often been proposed to play an important role. In this review we compile available high‐resolution paleoceanographic datasets from the northern North Atlantic and Nordic Seas. The records are grouped into regions related to modern ocean conditions and their variability is discussed. We additionally discuss our current knowledge from modelling studies, with a specific focus on the dynamical changes that are not well inferred from the proxy records. An illustration is provided through the analysis of two climate model ensembles and an individual simulation of the last millennium. This review thereby provides an up‐to‐date paleo‐perspective on the North Atlantic multidecadal to multi‐centennial ocean variability across the last two millennia.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Fischer, Nils; Jungclaus, Johann H (2010): Effects of orbital forcing on atmosphere and ocean heat transports in Holocene and Eemian climate simulations with a comprehensive Earth system model. Climate of the Past, 6, 155-168, https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-6-155-2010
    Publication Date: 2019-11-20
    Description: Orbital forcing does not only exert direct insolation effects, but also alters climate indirectly through feedback mechanisms that modify atmosphere and ocean dynamics and meridional heat and moisture transfers. We investigate the regional effects of these changes by detailed analysis of atmosphere and ocean circulation and heat transports in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice-biosphere general circulation model (ECHAM5/JSBACH/MPI-OM). We perform long term quasi equilibrium simulations under pre-industrial, mid-Holocene (6000 years before present – yBP), and Eemian (125 000 yBP) orbital boundary conditions. Compared to pre-industrial climate, Eemian and Holocene temperatures show generally warmer conditions at higher and cooler conditions at lower latitudes. Changes in sea-ice cover, ocean heat transports, and atmospheric circulation patterns lead to pronounced regional heterogeneity. Over Europe, the warming is most pronounced over the north-eastern part in accordance with recent reconstructions for the Holocene. We attribute this warming to enhanced ocean circulation in the Nordic Seas and enhanced ocean-atmosphere heat flux over the Barents Shelf in conduction with retreat of sea ice and intensified winter storm tracks over northern Europe.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 100 data points
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