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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-11
    Description: Geosciences, Vol. 8, Pages 300: Improving Flood Maps in Ungauged Fluvial Basins with Dendrogeomorphological Data. An Example from the Caldera de Taburiente National Park (Canary Islands, Spain) Geosciences doi: 10.3390/geosciences8080300 Authors: Julio Garrote Andrés Díez-Herrero Mar Génova José M. Bodoque María A. Perucha Pablo L. Mayer Flash floods represent one of the more usual natural hazards in mountain basins, and, combined with the lack of reliable flow data and the recreational use of the drainage basin by tourists and hikers, there is a significant risk of catastrophe. Here, we present a dendro-geomorphological reconstruction of a past flash flood event in the Caldera de Taburiente N.P. (Canary Islands, Spain), an ungauged drainage basin in the SW side of the volcanic island of La Palma. We couple two-dimensional hydraulic modelling in a highly-resolved topographic environment (LiDAR data) with (1) peak flow data for various Tyear return periods from an uncalibrated hydrological model and (2) a data set of scars on trees, to investigate the magnitude of a 1997 dated flash-flood. From the results, flood hazards and associated risks would be clearly underestimated by using only the unique available hydrological data (a rainfall gauge station downstream of the study area). Hydraulic models using scars data show a higher flood hazard scenario, improving the flood hazard map by using all available flood evidence. Moreover, all this will allow for better implementation of appropriate adaptation policies by National Park managers, and therefore the mitigation of future disasters.
    Electronic ISSN: 2076-3263
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-01
    Description: Geosciences, Vol. 8, Pages 6: Flood Hazard Management in Public Mountain Recreation Areas vs. Ungauged Fluvial Basins. Case Study of the Caldera de Taburiente National Park, Canary Islands (Spain) Geosciences doi: 10.3390/geosciences8010006 Authors: Julio Garrote Andrés Díez-Herrero José Bodoque María Perucha Pablo Mayer Mar Génova Las Angustias River is an ungauged stream in the Caldera de Taburiente National Park (Spain), where frequent intense flash-flood events occur. The aim of this research is to analyze the flood hazard at the Playa de Taburiente. Based on the limited information available (short time-series of daily precipitation), a statistical frequency analysis of 24 h rainfall was completed and the precipitation results were transformed into surface runoff. To determine if the model underestimates the flows that are generated in the basin, the dendro-geomorphological information available was used to calibrate results. The results of the HMS model were significantly lower. At this point, both the rainfall data and the rainfall-runoff model were re-analyzed to maximize the rainfall intensity values and the runoff generated (increasing the CN value for the basin). For the 1997 flood event, a 1250 m3·s−1 flood minimizes the RMSE for the disturbed tree sample; this flow value also clearly exceeds any peak flow derived from the rainfall-runoff analysis. It is only when rainfall intensity and surface runoff are maximized that the peak flows obtained approximate those associated with dendro-geomorphological data. The results highlight the difficulties of flood hazard management in ungauged torrential basins in mountain recreational areas (such as National Parks). Thus, in the absence of flow records, when considering the maximum rainfall intensity scenario may be a useful and effective tool for flood risk management.
    Electronic ISSN: 2076-3263
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Morphometric characterisation is particularly relevant in the study of geomorphological heritage. 3D modelling techniques have been proven as very useful tools to recognise, characterise and valorise geomorpho...
    Electronic ISSN: 2197-4284
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Springer
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Calibration and validation of flood risk maps at a national or a supra-national level remains a problematic aspect due to the limited information available to carry out these tasks. However, this validation is essential to define the representativeness of the results and for end users to gain confidence in them. In recent years, the use of information derived from social networks is becoming generalized in the field of natural risks as a means of validating results. However, the use of data from social networks also has its drawbacks, such as the biases associated with age and gender and their spatial distribution. The use of information associated with phone calls to Emergency Services (112) can resolve these deficiencies, although other problems are still latent. For example, a bias does exist in the relationship between the size of the population and the number of calls to the Emergency Services. This last aspect determines that global regression models have not been effective in simulating the behavior of related variables (calls to Emergency Services–Potential Flood Risk). Faced with this situation, the use of local regression models (such as locally estimated scatterplot smoothing (LOESS)) showed satisfactory results in the calibration of potential flood risk levels in the Autonomous Community of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). This provides a new methodological path to the calibration studies of flood risk cartographies at national and supra-national levels. The results obtained through LOESS local regression models allowed us to establish the correct relationship between categorized potential risk levels and the inferred potential risk. They also permitted us to define the cases in which said levels differed ostensibly and where potential risk due to floods assigned to those municipalities led to a lower level of confidence. Therefore, based on the number of calls to the Emergency Service, we can categorize those municipalities that should be the subject of a more detailed study and those whose classification should be revised in future updates.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: Flash floods represent one of the more usual natural hazards in mountain basins, and, combined with the lack of reliable flow data and the recreational use of the drainage basin by tourists and hikers, there is a significant risk of catastrophe. Here, we present a dendro-geomorphological reconstruction of a past flash flood event in the Caldera de Taburiente N.P. (Canary Islands, Spain), an ungauged drainage basin in the SW side of the volcanic island of La Palma. We couple two-dimensional hydraulic modelling in a highly-resolved topographic environment (LiDAR data) with (1) peak flow data for various Tyear return periods from an uncalibrated hydrological model and (2) a data set of scars on trees, to investigate the magnitude of a 1997 dated flash-flood. From the results, flood hazards and associated risks would be clearly underestimated by using only the unique available hydrological data (a rainfall gauge station downstream of the study area). Hydraulic models using scars data show a higher flood hazard scenario, improving the flood hazard map by using all available flood evidence. Moreover, all this will allow for better implementation of appropriate adaptation policies by National Park managers, and therefore the mitigation of future disasters.
    Electronic ISSN: 2076-3263
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by MDPI
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: The 2013–14 winter storms were the most energetic storms in the European Atlantic on record since at least 1948. They caused intense erosive processes along the coast, similar to those described previously in places such as the United Kingdom and France. In this study, an analysis is conducted of the historical evolution (1956–2017) of four dune systems in the region of Cantabria (northern Spain) and their response to such storms. The analysis uses aerial images (from 1956, 2002, 2010, 2014, and 2017) implemented in ArcGIS, and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) model for the estimation of a series of statistical parameters relative to the historical behavior of the shoreline. The DSAS model allows a geometric structure to be calculated that is flexible and can be adapted to the morphological conditions of the coast. The results obtained from the model for the entire historical period and the pre-storm analysis show clear variability in the evolution of the dune systems, while the post-storm analysis yields homogeneous results that indicate significant erosion, with no signs of recovery. The limited time elapsed since the 2013–14 winter storm clustering and the high interannual energy variability of the subsequent winters seem to be behind the absence of evidence of dune system recovery and even the increase in the erosion processes observed in some cases.
    Electronic ISSN: 2076-3263
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by MDPI
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