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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The final cruise of the NSF sponsored Warm Core Rings Program studied a Warm Core Ring (WCR) in the Fall of 1982 as it formed from a large northward meander of the Gulf Stream. This ring, known as 82-H or the eighth ring identified in 1982, formed over the New England Seamounts near 39.5 deg N, 65 deg W. Surveys using Expendable Bathythermographs, Conductivity-Temperature-Depth-Oxygen stations and Doppler Current Profiling provide a look at the genesis of a WCR. These measurements reveal that WCR 82-H separated from the Gulf Stream sometime between October 2-5. This ring was a typical WCR with a diameter of about 200 km and speeds in the high velocity core of the 175 cm/sec. Satellite imagery of 82-H following the cruise showed that it drifted WSW in the Slope Water region at almost 9 km/day, had at least one interaction with the Gulf Stream and was last observed on February 8, 1983 at 39 deg N, 72 deg W.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: WHOI-86-15 , NASA-CR-177234 , NAS 1.26:177234
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The degree to which Acoustic-Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data can provide quantitative measurements of the velocity structure and transport of the Gulf Stream is addressed. An algorithm is used to generate salinity from temperature and depth using an historical Temperature/Salinity relation for the NW Atlantic. Results have been simulated using CTD data and comparing real and pseudo salinity files. Errors are typically less than 2 dynamic cm for the upper 800 m out of a total signal of 80 cm (across the Gulf Stream). When combined with ADCP data for a near-surface reference velocity, transport errors in isopycnal layers are less than about 1 Sv (10 to the 6th power cu m/s), as is the difference in total transport for the upper 800 m between real and pseudo data. The method is capable of measuring the real variability of the Gulf Stream, and when combined with altimeter data, can provide estimates of the geoid slope with oceanic errors of a few parts in 10 to the 8th power over horizontal scales of 500 km.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-CR-183188 , NAS 1.26:183188 , WHOI-88-42
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The underway current profiling system which consists of a microprocessor controlled data logger that collects and formats data from a four beam Ametek-Straza 300 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, heading from the ship's gyrocompass, and navigation information from a Loran-C receiver and a satellite navigation unit is discussed. Data are recorded on magnetic tape and real time is calculated. Time averaging is required to remove effects of ship motion. An intercomparison is made with a moored vector measuring current meter (VMCM). The mean difference in hourly averaged APOC and VMCM currents over the four hour intercomparison is a few mm s minus including: two Gulf Stream crossings, a warm core ring survey, and shallow water in a frontal zone to the east of Nantucket Shoals.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: WHOI-82-48 , NASA-CR-169529 , NAS 1.26:169529
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  • 4
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 10 (10). pp. 1686-1690.
    Publication Date: 2016-05-10
    Description: The temporal changes in the low-frequency thermal structure during a two-week period in August-September 1978 are discussed from moored data collected during the JASIN experiment. While some changes in the thermal structure appear to be related to local winds, the dominant low-frequency variability in the seasonal thermocline can be explained as horizontal advection of a spatially varying temperature field, and associated thermal wind, by geostrophic currents with little vertical motion or mixing required.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Small-scale cyclones found around Gulf Stream warm-core ring 82B are investigated by using infrared satellite images and current information obtained with an acoustic-Doppler velocimeter. Currents in these cyclones reveal speeds ranging from 20 to 80 cm/s. One small cyclone or 'ringlet' found in June 1982 was studied extensively by removing the basic rotational velocities of 82B. The azimuthal velocity field for this ringlet was used with the gradient current equation to calculate the absolute dynamic topography at 100 dbar. It was found that the ringlet was 13 dyn-cm lower than its surroundings. In addition, neglect of the centrifugal term would have changed the dynamic topography of the ringlet by 30 percent. From a comparison with CTD data the absolute reference level was determined, and a vertical profile of horizontal currents was calculated for the ringlet. Other cyclones were found throughout the slope water region around warm-core ring 82B with observable lifetimes of 1 to 2 weeks. The northeast quadrant of 82B was a favored generation site for ringlets. Two cyclones were observed to form in this region and were advected anticyclonically around 82B. Typically, at any one time, six cyclones with diameters of approximately 40 to 50 km can be detected north of the Gulf Stream by using satellite images.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; 8845-885
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The present shipboard data in the 1982 time series on a single Gulf Stream warm core ring are composited on a cylindrical coordinate system following ring motion; 10 C-isotherm depth measurements are used in a two-layer model of the ring's structure to compute gradient current, kinetic energy, available potential energy (APE), and potential vorticity. The ring's evolution can be divided into two periods: April-late June, while the ring is isolated from strong Gulf Stream interaction, during which the ring loses APE at a low rate, and from July onward, following ring interactions with the Gulf Stream and topography with much higher energy loss. Within measurement errors, the potential vorticity at the center of the ring is conserved from April through August, implying nearly inviscid dynamics.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; 8813-882
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Acoustic-Doppler current profiling of warm-core ring (WCR) 82B revealed changes in the velocity structure over much of the ring's 7-month lifespan. As ring diameter decreased, peak speeds in the high-velocity region decreased from 0.8 m/s in April 1982 to 0.5 m/s in August 1982. Azimuthally averaged velocities revealed the core of WCR 82B to be in near solid-body rotation, with little measurable horizontal divergence at 100 m. In addition, potential vorticity was conserved in the ring core despite interactions with the Gulf Stream and large changes in ring size. Deviations from symmetry in WCR 82B were caused by superposition with the shelf-slope front, small cyclonic eddies, and upper-layer mean flow.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; 8839-884
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: On June 22, 1982, the R/V Endeavor, while participating in a multi-ship study of a warm core ring 82B, encountered a strong front in the core of the ring. The vessel was headed on a radial section outward from ring center while a CTD was repeatedly raised and lowered between 10 and 300 m. Current profiles in the upper 100 m were obtained continuously with a Doppler acoustic profiling system. Above the shallow 45 m seasonal thermocline, a current jet of 4 km width was encountered having a central core of relatively light water and a maximum current of 1.1 m/s. This jet was both highly nonlinear and totally unexpected. A high frequency packet of directional internal waves was acoustically observed in the seasonal thermocline at the outer edge of the jet. Vertical velocities were large enough (6 cm/s) as to be directly observable in the Doppler returns. The waves were propagating from the northeast, parallel to the ship track, and orthogonal to the jet toward the center of the warm core ring. While a nonlinear, centrifugal term was required for the force balance of the jet, the high-frequency internal wave packet could be explained with linear, gravest-mode wave dynamics.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: AD-A141757 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 1997-200
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Data from a shipborne acoustic profiling device have been combined with conductivity, temperature, depth/O2 sections across the Gulf Stream to form estimates of the absolute flow fields. The procedure for the combination was a form of inverse method. The results suggest that at the time of the observations (June 1982) the net Gulf Stream transport off Hatteras was 107 + or - 11 Sv and that across a section near 72.5 W it had increased to 125 + or - 6 Sv. The transport of the deep western boundary current was 9 + or - 3 Sv. For comparison purposes an inversion was done using the hydrographic/O2 data alone as in previously published results and obtained qualitative agreement with the combined inversion. Inversion of the acoustic measurements alone, when corrected for instrument biases, leaves unacceptably large mass transport residuals in the deep water.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 91; 7573-758
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1984-05-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-3670
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0485
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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