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  • 1
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The two commonly used statistical measures of the air-sea heat flux, the sampling and classical means, have been compared using hourly reports over a 7-year-period from a weather ship stationed in the NE Atlantic. The sampling mean is the average over all flux estimates in a given period, where individual flux estimates are determined from ship reports of meteorological variables using the well-known bulk formulae. The classical mean is the flux derived by substituting period-averaged values for each of the meteorological variables into the bulk formula (where the averaging period employed is the same as that over which the fluxes are to be determined). Monthly sampling and classical means are calculated for the latent and sensible heat fluxes. The monthly classical mean latent heat flux is found to overestimate the sampling mean by an amount which increases from 1–2 W m−2 in summer to 7 W m−2 in winter, on average, over the 7-year-period. In a given winter month, the excess may be as great as 15 W m−2, which represents about 10% of the latent heat flux. For the sensible heat flux, any seasonal variation between the two means is of the order of 1 W m−2 and is not significant compared to the interannual variation. The discrepancy between the two means for the latent heat flux is shown to arise primarily from a negative correlation between the wind speed and sea-air humidity difference, the effects of which are implicitly included in the sampling method but not in the classical. The influence of the dominant weather conditions on the sign and magnitude of this correlation are explored, and the large negative values that it takes in winter are found to depend on the typical track of the mid-latitude depressions with respect to the position sampled. In conclusion, it is suggested that sampling means should be employed where possible in future climatological studies.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 27 (2014): 3596–3618, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00070.1.
    Description: Estimates of the recent mean and time varying water mass transformation rates associated with North Atlantic surface-forced overturning are presented. The estimates are derived from heat and freshwater surface fluxes and sea surface temperature fields from six atmospheric reanalyses—the Japanese 25-yr Reanalysis (JRA), the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis (NCEP1), the NCEP–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis (NCEP2), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-I), the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), and the Modern-Era Reanalysis for Research and Applications (MERRA)—together with sea surface salinity fields from two globally gridded datasets (World Ocean Atlas and Met Office EN3 datasets). The resulting 12 estimates of the 1979–2007 mean surface-forced streamfunction all depict a subpolar cell, with maxima north of 45°N, near σ = 27.5 kg m−3, and a subtropical cell between 20° and 40°N, near σ = 26.1 kg m−3. The mean magnitude of the subpolar cell varies between 12 and 18 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1), consistent with estimates of the overturning circulation from subsurface observations. Analysis of the thermal and haline components of the surface density fluxes indicates that large differences in the inferred low-latitude circulation are largely a result of the biases in reanalysis net heat flux fields, which range in the global mean from −13 to 19 W m−2. The different estimates of temporal variability in the subpolar cell are well correlated with each other. This suggests that the uncertainty associated with the choice of reanalysis product does not critically limit the ability of the method to infer the variability in the subpolar overturning. In contrast, the different estimates of subtropical variability are poorly correlated with each other, and only a subset of them captures a significant fraction of the variability in independently estimated North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water volume.
    Description: JPG is funded by UK Natural Environment Research Council New Investigator Grant NE/I001654/1. Y-OK was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant OCE-0424492. RJB is supported by a fellowship from the UK National Centre for Earth Observation.
    Description: 2014-11-15
    Keywords: Atmosphere-ocean interaction ; Meridional overturning circulation ; Ocean circulation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 41 (2014): 6213–6220, doi:10.1002/2014GL061302.
    Description: The Tropical Pacific mooring array has been a key component of the climate observing system since the early 1990s. We identify a pattern of strong near surface humidity anomalies, colocated with the array, in the widely used European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting Interim atmospheric reanalysis. The pattern generates large, previously unrecognized latent and net air-sea heat flux anomalies, up to 50 Wm−2 in the annual mean, in reanalysis derived data sets employed for climate studies (TropFlux) and ocean model forcing (the Drakkar Forcing Set). As a consequence, uncertainty in Tropical Pacific ocean heat uptake between the 1990s and early 2000s at the mooring sites is significant with mooring colocated differences in decadally averaged ocean heat uptake as large as 20 Wm−2. Furthermore, these results have major implications for the dual use of air-sea flux buoys as reference sites and sources of assimilation data that are discussed.
    Description: SKG and NT were supported by the Russian Science Foundation project 14-17-00697.
    Description: 2015-03-03
    Keywords: Tropical Pacific ; Heat flux ; Mooring array ; Reanalysis
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-11
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 45 (2018): 5002-5010, doi:10.1029/2017GL076909.
    Description: The Ocean Observatories Initiative air‐sea flux mooring deployed at 54.08°S, 89.67°W, in the southeast Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, is the farthest south long‐term open ocean flux mooring ever deployed. Mooring observations (February 2015 to August 2017) provide the first in situ quantification of annual net air‐sea heat exchange from one of the prime Subantarctic Mode Water formation regions. Episodic turbulent heat loss events (reaching a daily mean net flux of −294 W/m2) generally occur when northeastward winds bring relatively cold, dry air to the mooring location, leading to large air‐sea temperature and humidity differences. Wintertime heat loss events promote deep mixed layer formation that lead to Subantarctic Mode Water formation. However, these processes have strong interannual variability; a higher frequency of 2 σ and 3 σ turbulent heat loss events in winter 2015 led to deep mixed layers (〉300 m), which were nonexistent in winter 2016.
    Description: NSF Grant Number: PLR-1425989; NSF Grant Number: OCE-1357072; NSF Grant Number: OCE-1658001; UK Natural Environment Research Council; ORCHESTRA Grant Number: NE/N018095/1
    Description: 2018-11-11
    Keywords: Southern Ocean ; Mixed layer ; Subantarctic Mode Water ; Air‐sea heat flux ; Mooring ; Interannual variability
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-12
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 45 (2018): 11,257-11,264, doi:10.1029/2018GL079336.
    Description: The Gulf Stream plays an important role in North Atlantic climate variability on a range of timescales. The North Atlantic is notable for large decadal variability in sea surface temperatures (SST). Whether this variability is driven by atmospheric or oceanic influences is a disputed point. Long time series of atmospheric and ocean variables, in particular long time series of Gulf Stream position, reveal differing sources of SST variability on quasi‐decadal and multidecadal timescales. On quasi‐decadal timescales, an oscillatory signal identified in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) controls SST evolution directly via air‐sea heat fluxes. However, on multidecadal timescales, this relationship between the NAO and SST changes, while the relationship between the NAO and Gulf Stream position remains consistent in phase and resonant in amplitude. Recent changes in the Gulf Stream Extension show a weakening and broadening of the current, consistent with increased instability. We consider these changes in the context of a weakening Atlantic overturning circulation.
    Description: European Commission (EC) Grant Number: 727852
    Keywords: Atlantic Ocean ; Atlantic multidecadal variability ; Gulf Stream ; Atlantic meridional overturning circulation ; Air‐sea heat fluxes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 26 (2013): 1685–1701, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00267.1.
    Description: The influence of the atmospheric circulation on the winter air–sea heat fluxes over the northern Red Sea is investigated during the period 1985–2011. The analysis based on daily heat flux values reveals that most of the net surface heat exchange variability depends on the behavior of the turbulent components of the surface flux (the sum of the latent and sensible heat). The large-scale composite sea level pressure (SLP) maps corresponding to turbulent flux minima and maxima show distinct atmospheric circulation patterns associated with each case. In general, extreme heat loss (with turbulent flux lower than −400 W m−2) over the northern Red Sea is observed when anticyclonic conditions prevail over an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to eastern Asia along with a recession of the equatorial African lows system. Subcenters of high pressure associated with this pattern generate the required steep SLP gradient that enhances the wind magnitude and transfers cold and dry air masses from higher latitudes. Conversely, turbulent flux maxima (heat loss minimization with values from −100 to −50 W m−2) are associated with prevailing low pressures over the eastern Mediterranean and an extended equatorial African low that reaches the southern part of the Red Sea. In this case, a smooth SLP field over the northern Red Sea results in weak winds over the area that in turn reduce the surface heat loss. At the same time, southerlies blowing along the main axis of the Red Sea transfer warm and humid air northward, favoring heat flux maxima.
    Description: The authors acknowledge the Red Sea Research Center (RSRC) at King Abdullah University for Science and Technology (KAUST) for kindly sponsoring this study. Amy Bower was supported by Awards USA 00002, KSA 00011, and KSA 00011/02 made by KAUST to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Description: 2013-09-01
    Keywords: Extreme events ; Air-sea interaction ; Forcing ; Surface fluxes ; Trends
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-11-02
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 30 (2017): 3829-3852, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0479.1.
    Description: This study provides an assessment of the uncertainty in ocean surface (OS) freshwater budgets and variability using evaporation E and precipitation P from 10 atmospheric reanalyses, two combined satellite-based E − P products, and two observation-based salinity products. Three issues are examined: the uncertainty level in the OS freshwater budget in atmospheric reanalyses, the uncertainty structure and association with the global ocean wet/dry zones, and the potential of salinity in ascribing the uncertainty in E − P. The products agree on the global mean pattern but differ considerably in magnitude. The OS freshwater budgets are 129 ± 10 (8%) cm yr−1 for E, 118 ± 11 (9%) cm yr−1 for P, and 11 ± 4 (36%) cm yr−1 for E − P, where the mean and error represent the ensemble mean and one standard deviation of the ensemble spread. The E − P uncertainty exceeds the uncertainty in E and P by a factor of 4 or more. The large uncertainty is attributed to P in the tropical wet zone. Most reanalyses tend to produce a wider tropical rainband when compared to satellite products, with the exception of two recent reanalyses that implement an observation-based correction for the model-generated P over land. The disparity in the width and the extent of seasonal migrations of the tropical wet zone causes a large spread in P, implying that the tropical moist physics and the realism of tropical rainfall remain a key challenge. Satellite salinity appears feasible to evaluate the fidelity of E − P variability in three tropical areas, where the uncertainty diagnosis has a global indication.
    Description: Primary support for the study is provided by the NOAAModeling, Analysis, Predictions, and Projections (MAPP) Program’s Climate Reanalysis Task Force (CRTF) through Grant NA13OAR4310106.
    Description: 2017-11-02
    Keywords: Hydrologic cycle ; Precipitation ; Evaporation ; Salinity ; Water budget ; Reanalysis data
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 122 (2017): 6547–6564, doi:10.1002/2016JC012281.
    Description: This study analyzed shipboard air-sea measurements acquired by the icebreaker Aurora Australis during its off-winter operation in December 2010 to May 2012. Mean conditions over 7 months (October–April) were compiled from a total of 22 ship tracks. The icebreaker traversed the water between Hobart, Tasmania, and the Antarctic continent, providing valuable in situ insight into two dynamically important, yet poorly sampled, regimes: the sub-Antarctic Southern Ocean and the Antarctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Indian Ocean sector. The transition from the open water to the ice-covered surface creates sharp changes in albedo, surface roughness, and air temperature, leading to consequential effects on air-sea variables and fluxes. Major effort was made to estimate the air-sea fluxes in the MIZ using the bulk flux algorithms that are tuned specifically for the sea-ice effects, while computing the fluxes over the sub-Antarctic section using the COARE3.0 algorithm. The study evidenced strong sea-ice modulations on winds, with the southerly airflow showing deceleration (convergence) in the MIZ and acceleration (divergence) when moving away from the MIZ. Marked seasonal variations in heat exchanges between the atmosphere and the ice margin were noted. The monotonic increase in turbulent latent and sensible heat fluxes after summer turned the MIZ quickly into a heat loss regime, while at the same time the sub-Antarctic surface water continued to receive heat from the atmosphere. The drastic increase in turbulent heat loss in the MIZ contrasted sharply to the nonsignificant and seasonally invariant turbulent heat loss over the sub-Antarctic open water.
    Description: NOAA Climate Observation Division Grant Number: NA09OAR4320129
    Description: 2018-02-23
    Keywords: Air-sea interaction ; Sub-Antarctic Southern Ocean ; Antarctic marginal ice zone ; Icebreaker measurements
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-18
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 46(1), (2018): 293-302, doi:10.1029/2018GL080956.
    Description: Ground‐breaking measurements from the ocean observatories initiative Irminger Sea surface mooring (60°N, 39°30′W) are presented that provide the first in situ characterization of multiwinter surface heat exchange at a high latitude North Atlantic site. They reveal strong variability (December 2014 net heat loss nearly 50% greater than December 2015) due primarily to variations in frequency of intense short timescale (1–3 days) forcing. Combining the observations with the new high resolution European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis 5 (ERA5) atmospheric reanalysis, the main source of multiwinter variability is shown to be changes in the frequency of Greenland tip jets (present on 15 days in December 2014 and 3 days in December 2015) that can result in hourly mean heat loss exceeding 800 W/m2. Furthermore, a new picture for atmospheric mode influence on Irminger Sea heat loss is developed whereby strongly positive North Atlantic Oscillation conditions favor increased losses only when not outweighed by the East Atlantic Pattern.
    Description: We are grateful to Meric Srokosz and the two reviewers for helpful comments on this work. S. J. acknowledges the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council ACSIS programme funding (Ref. NE/N018044/1). M. O. acknowledges support from EU Horizon 2020 projects AtlantOS (grant 633211) and Blue Action (grant 727852). G. W. K. M. acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Support for the Irminger Sea array of the ocean observatories initiative (OOI) came from the U.S. National Science Foundation. Thanks to the WHOI team and ships' officers and crew for the field deployments and to Nan Galbraith for processing the data and computing the air‐sea fluxes. Support for this processing, and making available and sharing the OOI data, came from the National Science Foundation under a Collaborative Research: Science Across Virtual Institutes grant (82164000) to R. A. W. Data used are available from the following sites: NOAA Climate Prediction Center NAO and EAP indices ftp://ftp.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/wd52dg/data/indices/tele_index.nh, ECMWF Reanalysis 5 (ERA5) https://www.ecmwf.int/en/forecasts/datasets/archive‐datasets/reanalysis/datasets/era5, and ocean observatories initiative Irminger Mooring https://ooinet.oceanobservatories.org/.
    Description: 2019-06-18
    Keywords: Irminger Sea ; air‐sea interaction ; surface heat flux ; atmospheric modes ; surface flux mooring ; atmospheric reanalysis
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-16
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Cronin, M. F., Gentemann, C. L., Edson, J., Ueki, I., Bourassa, M., Brown, S., Clayson, C. A., Fairall, C. W., Farrar, J. T., Gille, S. T., Gulev, S., Josey, S. A., Kato, S., Katsumata, M., Kent, E., Krug, M., Minnett, P. J., Parfitt, R., Pinker, R. T., Stackhouse, P. W., Jr., Swart, S., Tomita, H., Vandemark, D., Weller, R. A., Yoneyama, K., Yu, L., & Zhang, D. Air-sea fluxes with a focus on heat and momentum. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019): 430, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00430.
    Description: Turbulent and radiative exchanges of heat between the ocean and atmosphere (hereafter heat fluxes), ocean surface wind stress, and state variables used to estimate them, are Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) and Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) influencing weather and climate. This paper describes an observational strategy for producing 3-hourly, 25-km (and an aspirational goal of hourly at 10-km) heat flux and wind stress fields over the global, ice-free ocean with breakthrough 1-day random uncertainty of 15 W m–2 and a bias of less than 5 W m–2. At present this accuracy target is met only for OceanSITES reference station moorings and research vessels (RVs) that follow best practices. To meet these targets globally, in the next decade, satellite-based observations must be optimized for boundary layer measurements of air temperature, humidity, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind stress. In order to tune and validate these satellite measurements, a complementary global in situ flux array, built around an expanded OceanSITES network of time series reference station moorings, is also needed. The array would include 500–1000 measurement platforms, including autonomous surface vehicles, moored and drifting buoys, RVs, the existing OceanSITES network of 22 flux sites, and new OceanSITES expanded in 19 key regions. This array would be globally distributed, with 1–3 measurement platforms in each nominal 10° by 10° box. These improved moisture and temperature profiles and surface data, if assimilated into Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, would lead to better representation of cloud formation processes, improving state variables and surface radiative and turbulent fluxes from these models. The in situ flux array provides globally distributed measurements and metrics for satellite algorithm development, product validation, and for improving satellite-based, NWP and blended flux products. In addition, some of these flux platforms will also measure direct turbulent fluxes, which can be used to improve algorithms for computation of air-sea exchange of heat and momentum in flux products and models. With these improved air-sea fluxes, the ocean’s influence on the atmosphere will be better quantified and lead to improved long-term weather forecasts, seasonal-interannual-decadal climate predictions, and regional climate projections.
    Description: EK was funded by the NERC CLASS Program (NE/R015953/1). CLG was funded by NASA grant 80NSSC18K0837. SG was funded by MEGAGRANT P220 program (#14.W03.31.0006).
    Keywords: air-sea heat flux ; latent heat flux ; surface radiation ; ocean wind stress ; autonomous surface vehicle ; OceanSITES ; ICOADS ; satellite-based ocean monitoring system
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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