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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2007-01-01
    Description: Popocatépetl (19°02’ N, 98°62’W; 5424 m) is one of the largest active stratovolcanoes in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. A glacier located on the north side has undergone severe ablation since the volcano reinitiated eruptive activity in December 1994. In our study, we calculate the extent of the glacier recession and the loss in glacial mass balance during the period of greatest laharic activity (1994–2002), using photogrammetric treatment of 20 pairs of aerial photographs. The results indicate that from November 1997 to December 2002, the glacier released approximately 3 967 000 m3 of water. A period of intense glacier melting occurred from 4 November 2000 to 15 March 2001 during which time 717 000 m3 of water was released. Much of the melting was attributed to the pyroclastic flow that took place on 22 January 2001 and produced a 14.2 km lahar with 68 000 m3 of water. Among the many types of volcanic events, pyroclastic flows were the most effective in causing sudden snowmelt, although small explosions were also effective since they deposited incandescent material on the glacier. The collapse of the plinian columns covered the glacier with pyroclasts and increased its volume. The existence of control points for georeferencing and a knowledge of the topography underlying the glacier previous to the eruption would have provided more accurate and useful results for hazard prevention.
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-05-04
    Description: The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) profiles of Gymnodinium catenatum Graham have been reported for several strains from the Pacific coast of Mexico cultured under different laboratory conditions, as well as from natural populations. Up to 15 saxitoxin analogues occurred and the quantity of each toxin depended on the growth phase and culture conditions. Previous analysis of toxin profiles of G. catenatum isolated from Mexico have been based on post-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD), a method prone to artefacts and non-specificity, leading to misinterpretation of toxin composition. We describe, for the first time, the complete toxin profile for several G. catenatum strains from diverse locations of the Pacific coast of Mexico. The new results confirmed previous reports on the dominance of the less potent sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1/2); significant differences, however, in the composition (e.g., absence of saxitoxin, gonyautoxin 2/3 and neosaxitoxin) were revealed in our confirmatory analysis. The LC-MS/MS analyses also indicated at least seven putative benzoyl toxin analogues and provided support for their existence. This new toxin profile shows a high similarity (〉 80%) to the profiles reported from several regions around the world, suggesting low genetic variability among global populations.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-11-20
    Description: The chain-forming marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham has a remarkable capacity to produce a wide array of neurotoxic alkaloids associated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP). More than a decade ago, a completely new group of benzoyl saxitoxin analogs produced exclusively by this species was discovered, but the exact structural assignments and diversity among global population has remained elusive and nconfirmed in most cases. In the current study, fifteen among eighteen hypothetical benzoyl analogs were partially purified and identified from cultured isolates of G. catenatum from the Pacific coast of Mexico. Combined serial application of flash chromatography, preparative liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple steps yielded a richness of benzoyl analogs that has not been reported nor confirmed before. Two sub-fractions were analyzed by 1H-NMR; results from one fraction showed a probable AMX pattern for three protons, consistent with the presence of a 3,4-dihydroxylated benzoyl ring. These findings could be interpreted to correct the 2,4-dihydroxylated structure previously proposed for the GCa benzoyl analog series. The revised and enhanced structural information on proposed benzoyl derivatives is necessary to provide further insights into biogeographical diversity of these potentially potent toxins produced by marine dinoflagellates and their role in seafood safety.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs are paralytic alkaloid neurotoxins that block the voltage-gated sodium channel pore (Nav), impeding passage of Na+ ions into the intracellular space, and thereby preventing the action potential in the peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle. The marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces an array of such toxins, including the recently discovered benzoyl analogs, for which the mammalian toxicities are essentially unknown. We subjected STX and its analogs to a theoretical docking simulation based upon two alternative tri-dimensional models of the Nav1.4 to find a relationship between the binding properties and the known mammalian toxicity of selected STX analogs. We inferred hypothetical toxicities for the benzoyl analogs from the modeled values. We demonstrate that these toxins exhibit different binding modes with similar free binding energies and that these alternative binding modes are equally probable. We propose that the principal binding that governs ligand recognition is mediated by electrostatic interactions. Our simulation constitutes the first in silico modeling study on benzoyl-type paralytic toxins and provides an approach towards a better understanding of the mode of action of STX and its analogs.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: STEREO (Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate Sun-Earth Connection theme. This paper describes the successful implementation (lunar swingby targeting) of the mission following the first phasing orbit to deployment into the heliocentric mission orbits following the two lunar swingbys. The STEREO Project had to make some interesting trajectory decisions in order to exploit opportunities to image a bright comet and an unusual lunar transit across the Sun.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics; NASA/CP-2007-214158
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: STEREO (Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). STEREO is the first mission to utilize phasing loops and multiple lunar flybys to alter the trajectories of more than one satellite. This paper describes the launch computation methodology, the launch constraints, and the resulting nine launch windows that were prepared for STEREO. More details are provided for the window in late October 2006 that was actually used.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics; NASA/CP-2007-214158
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The objective of the NASA Geodynamics program for magnetic field measurements is to study the physical state, processes and evolution of the Earth and its environment via interpretation of measurements of the near Earth magnetic field in conjunction with other geophysical data. The fields measured derive from sources in the core, the lithosphere, the ionosphere, and the magnetosphere. Panel recommendations include initiation of multi-decade long continuous scalar and vector measurements of the Earth's magnetic field by launching a five year satellite mission to measure the field to about 1 nT accuracy, improvement of our resolution of the lithographic component of the field by developing a low altitude satellite mission, and support of theoretical studies and continuing analysis of data to better understand the source physics and improve the modeling capabilities for different source regions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Solid Earth Science in the 1990s. Volume 2: Panel Reports; 35 p
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  • 8
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    Instituto de Ciencias del Mar - CSIC
    In:  Scientia Marina, 59 (3-4). pp. 347-355.
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: The quick development of the skull structure is of vital importance to animals during the early stages of life given that here in are located the governing center and the mechanisms which make feeding possible. However, the rhythm of growth changes thoughout the life cycle, a process which is particularly manifest in the proportionate head/body growth. The mouth structures grow proportionately to head growth. These accentuated changes in the anatomy of the animal could be reflected in its behavioural pattern (migrations between two areas in the case of some species and significant changes in diet connecting to these migrations). Scomber japonicus (Pisces. Scombridae) and Illex coindetii(Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) both undergo significant changes in the rhythm of growth of their respective mouth structures when they reach around 13-15 and 14-20 cm of total body length (mantle length in cephalopods) respectively. In Illex coindetii there are also differences by sex, being the changes of growth at 15 cm in males and around 20 cm in females. In both of these species, this change in the rhythm of growth implies a significant variation in dietas the consequence of a shift of habitat.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: In this work we present a method to solve the impulsive minimum fuel maneuver problem for a distributed set of spacecraft. We develop the method assuming a fully non-linear dynamics model and parameterize the problem to allow the method to be applicable to any flight regime. Furthermore, the approach is not limited by the inter-spacecraft separation distances and is applicable to both small formations as well as constellations. We assume that the desired relative motion is driven by mission requirements and has been determined a-priori. The goal of this work is to develop a technique to achieve the desired relative motion in a minimum fuel manner. To permit applicability to multiple flight regimes, we have chosen to parameterize the cost function in terms of the maneuver times expressed in a useful time system and the maneuver locations expressed in their Cartesian vector representations. We also include as an independent variable the initial reference orbit to solve for the optimal injection orbit to minimize and equalize the fuel expenditure of distributed sets of spacecraft with large inter-spacecraft separations. In this work we derive the derivatives of the cost and constraints with respect to all of the independent variables.
    Keywords: Astrodynamics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Risks associated with extended habitation in a space environment, particularly hazards to space workers that might result from exposure to high energy heavy ion particles (HZE), were studied. Biological effects of HZE were investigated in mice to assess their potential adverse health hazards. The potential effects of HZE particles on the crystalline lens of the eye and the carcinogenic effects and blood vessel (vascular) damage from radiation were evaluated by a risk assessment. Animal experiments to evaluate dose response relationships for tumor induction/promotion and for vascular injury were introduced. Cataract productions and preliminary results on cacinogenic and vascular effects are presented for perspective.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA, Washington The Final Proc. of the Solar Power Satellite Program Rev.; p 477-479
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