Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
Abstract Occurrences of breeding bird species in 54 urban parks were investigated in the city of Oulu in northern Finland. Park area, human activity, habitat, and landscape structure within a 9-ha square surrounding the study park were related to the bird species richness and occurrence of individual bird species. A total of 22 species was observed. The area of the park explained 39% of the variance of species richness. Seven species (wheatear [Oenanthe oenanthe], common rosefinch [Carpodacus erythrinus], garden warbler [Sylvia borin], lesser whitethroat [Sylvia curruca], linnet [Acanthis cannabina], redpoll [Carduelis flammea], and yellowhammer [Emberiza citrinella]) were not detected in parks of 〉0.75 ha. Species with lower area demands occurred closer to the town center than species with greater area requirements. Ground-nesting species were poor colonizers of urban parks, whereas high numbers of nest boxes in urban parks attracted many cavity-nesting species. The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) and the magpie (Pica pica) bred more often in unmanaged than in managed parks, probably because of the greater vegetation cover in unmanaged parks. Park structure variables were entered into models for 7 of the 12 most common bird species, whereas broad scale variables were entered into models for 6 of the 12 species. The number of adjacent buildings had a negative affect on three bird species (the willow warbler, hooded crow [Corvus corone cornix], and spotted flycatcher [Muscicapa striata]). The occurrence of breeding species in urban parks depends on the size of the park, park structure, and landscape structure outside the park.
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