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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This study was designed to: determine dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT) and tetrabutyltin (TTBT) bi-weekly for a four month period (June-September 1986) in the Port Annapolis Marina, Mears Marina, Back Creek and Severn River area of Northern Chesapeake Bay; measure DBT, TBT and TTBT for five successive days (Thursday-Monday) to determine possible daily effects (weekday versus weekend) and determine DBT, TBT and TTBT every two hours for one full tidal cycle in the study area. Maximum concentrations of TBT were reported at both Port Annapolis Marina (1801 ng L−1) and Mears Marina (1171 ng L−1) during early June followed by significant reductions in TBT during late summer and early fall. All 4 Back Creek Stations also had highest concentrations of TBT in early June; significant reductions occurred during the next three months. The highest concentration of TBT reported in the Severn River (48 ng L−1) occurred in September. The lowest TBT value (5 ng L-1) at this station occurred in June. TTBT was not detected in any of the samples. The day of week sampled (Thursday-Monday) during the daily experiments was not found to significantly affect TBT concentrations. TBT evaluations every two hours during the tidal cycle demonstrated that values peaked at 1400 and 1600 hr time intervals. Peak concentrations of TBT occurred during a rising tide. The possible consequence of the measured TBT concentrations for aquatic biota are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Chronic tributyltin toxicity experiments were conducted with the following Chesapeake Bay organisms: amphipod, Gammarus sp.; juvenile Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus and larval inland silverside, Menidia beryllina. TBT concentrations ranging from 29 to 579 ng L−1 did not significantly affect survival of the benthic amphipod, Gammarus sp. after 24-d exposures. The weight of Gammarus exposed to control conditions was 2.8 times greater than the weight of these test organisms exposed to 579 ng L−1 TBT. Twenty-eight day exposures to TBT concentrations of 93 and 490 ng L−1 did not significantly affect survival of juvenile B. tyrannus or larval M. beryllina. Histological examinations of B. tyrannus did not demonstrate absolute effects resulting from TBT exposure due to extensive variation between individuals. Various morphometric measurements of M. beryllina after TBT exposure did not demonstrate significant effects. However, significant reductions in growth were reported for M. beryllina at both TBT concentrations. Environmental concentrations of TBT in Chesapeake Bay and possible effects on the above biota are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-02-24
    Description: Environmental quality indicators provide resource managers with information useful to assess coastal condition and scientifically defensible decisions. Since 1984, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), through its National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program, has provided environmental monitoring data on chemical, physical, and biological indicators of coastal environments. The program has two major monitoring components to meet its goals. The Bioeffects Assessments Program evaluates the health of bays, estuaries, and the coastal zone around the nation using the Sediment Quality Triad technique that includes measuring sediment contaminant concentrations, sediment toxicity and benthic community structure. The Mussel Watch Program is responsible for temporal coastal monitoring of contaminant concentrations by quantifying chemicals in bivalve mollusks. The NS&T Program is committed to providing the highest quality data to meet its statutory and scientific responsibilities. Data, metadata and information products are managed within the guidance protocols and standards set forth by NOAA’s Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and the National Monitoring Network, as recommended by the 2004 Ocean Action Plan. Thus, to meet these data requirements, quality assurance protocols have been an integral part of the NS&T Program since its inception. Documentation of sampling and analytical methods is an essential part of quality assurance practices. A step-by–step summary of the Bioeffects Program’s field standard operation procedures (SOP) are presented in this manual.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-02-27
    Description: A baseline environmental characterization of the inner Kachemak Bay, Alaska was conducted using standardized National Status and Trends Bioeffects Program methods. Three sites near the village of Port Graham were also sampled for comparison. Concentrations of over 120 organic and metallic contaminants were analyzed. Ambient toxicity was assessed using two bioassays. A detailed benthic community condition assessment was performed. Habitat parameters (e.g. depth, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, sediment grain size, and organic carbon content) that influence species and contaminant distribution were also measured at each sampling site. The following is the synopsis of findings • Sediments were mostly mixed silt and sand with pockets of muddy zones. Organic compounds (PAHs, DDTs, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides) were detected throughout the bay but at relatively low concentrations. With some exceptions, metals concentrations were relatively low and probably reflect the input of glacial runoff. • Homer Harbor had elevated concentrations of metallic and organic contaminants. Concentrations of organic contaminants measured were five to ten times higher in the harbor sites than in the open bay sites. Tributyltin was elevated in Homer Harbor relative to the other areas. • There was no evidence of residual PAHs attributable to oil spills, outside of local input in the confines of the harbor. • The benthic community is very diverse. Specific community assemblages were distributed based on depth and water clarity. Species richness and diversity was lower in the eastern end of the bay in the vicinity of the Fox River input. Abundance was also generally lower in the eastern portion of the study area, and in the intertidal areas near Homer. The eastern portions of the bay are stressed by the sediment load from glacial meltwater. • Significant toxicity was virtually absent. • The benthic fauna at Port Graham contained a significant number of species not found in Kachemak Bay. • Selected metal concentrations were elevated at Port Graham relative to Kachemak Bay, probably due to local geology. Organic contaminants were elevated at a site south of the village.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries ; Management ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-03-06
    Description: A baseline environmental characterization of the inner Kachemak Bay, Alaska was conducted using the sediment quality triad approach based on sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and benthic invertebrate community structure. The study area was subdivided into 5 strata based on geophysical and hydrodynamic patterns in the bay (eastern and western intertidal mud flats, eastern and western subtidal, and Homer Harbor). Three to seven locations were synoptically sampled within each stratum using a stratified random statistical design approach. Three sites near the village of Port Graham and two sites in the footprint of a proposed Homer Harbor expansion were also collected for comparison. Concentrations of over 120 organic and metallic contaminants were analyzed. Ambient toxicity was assessed using two amphipod bioassays. A detailed benthic community condition assessment was performed. Habitat parameters (depth, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, sediment grain size, and organic carbon content) that influence species and contaminant distribution were also measured at each sampling site. Sediments were mostly mixed silt and sand; characteristic of high energy habitats, with pockets of muddy zones. Organic compounds (PAHs, DDTs, PCBs, cyclodienes, cyclohexanes) were detected throughout the bay but at relatively low concentrations. Tributyltin was elevated in Homer Harbor relative to the other strata. With a few exceptions, metals concentrations were relatively low and probably reflect the input of glacial runoff. Relative to other sites, Homer Harbor sites were shown to have elevated concentrations of metallic and organic contaminants. The Homer Harbor stratum however, is a deep, low energy depositional environment with fine grained sediment. Concentrations of organic contaminants measured were five to ten times higher in the harbor sites than in the open bay sites. Concentration of PAHs is of a particular interest because of the legacy of oil spills in the region. There was no evidence of residual PAHs attributable to oil spills, outside of local input, beyond the confines of the harbor. Concentrations were one to ten times below NOAA sediment quality guidelines. Selected metal concentrations were found to be relatively elevated compared to other data collected in the region. However, levels are still very low in the scale of NOAA’s sediment quality guidelines, and therefore appear to pose little or no ecotoxicity threat to biota. Infaunal assessment showed a diverse assemblage with more than 240 taxa recorded and abundances greater than 3,000 animals m-22 in all but a few locations. Annelid worms, crustaceans, snails, and clams were the dominant taxa accounting for 63 %, 19%, 5%, and 7 % respectively of total individuals. Specific benthic community assemblages were identified that were distributed based on depth and water clarity. Species richness and diversity was lower in the eastern end of the bay in the vicinity of the Fox River input. Abundance was also generally lower in the eastern portion of the study area, and in the intertidal areas near Homer. The eastern portions of the bay are stressed by the sediment load from glacial meltwater. Significant toxicity was virtually absent. Conditions at the sites immediately outside the existing Homer Harbor facility did not differ significantly from other subtidal locations in the open Kachemak Bay. The benthic fauna at Port Graham contained a significant number of species not found in Kachemak Bay. Contaminant conditions were variable depending on specific location. Selected metal concentrations were elevated at Port Graham and some were lower relative to Kachemak Bay, probably due to local geology. Some organic contaminants were accumulating at a depositional site.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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