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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The NASA Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project completed a data acquisition phase. Data were acquired with several airborne imaging spectrometers. Included were the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) aboard the ER-2, the Advanced Solidstate Array Spectrometer (ASAS) aboard the C-130, and the Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI), both aboard light aircraft. In addition, Spectron visible and near-infrared data were acquired in transects across study areas from a low-altitude ultralight craft. Sunphotometer data were taken approximately coincident with each overflight for atmospheric correction of the aircraft data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA, Washington, 4th Airborne Geoscience Workshop; p 185-186
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Advanced Solid-state Array Spectrometer (ASAS) is a pointable imaging spectrometer which uses a solid-state array to acquire imagery of terrestrial targets in 29 spectral bands from .4 to .8 microns. Performance and calibration of the instrument are described. The ASAS data sets obtained in 1990 provide a unique look at forest canopies from two different forest regions of the North America continent under varying temporal, spectral, and bidirectional conditions. These data sets will be used to study such parameters as the albedo of forest canopies, the dynamics of scene radiation due to factors such as canopy architecture, moisture stress, leaf chemistry, topography, and understory composition.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA, Washington, 4th Airborne Geoscience Workshop; p 287-288
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Long term overgrazing in Mexico has caused a sharp discontinuity in vegetative cover along the international border in the semi-arid Sonoran Desert. The United States side, protected from overgrazing by the Taylor Act since 1934, exhibits longer, more plentiful grasses and less bare soil than adjoining Mexican lands. Satellite- and ground-based datasets were used in a multi-scale examination of the differential radiative and reflective characteristics of the two regimes. The more exposed Mexican landscape dries more rapidly than the United States following summer convective precipitation. After about three days, depletion of soil moisture evokes a period of higher surface and air temperatures in Mexico. Good correspondence was found between remote and in situ measures of surface temperature and biomass.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 54 (1994), S. 387-392 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: growth regulation ; cell cycle ; RNA processing ; intron ; splicing ; translational control ; autogenous control ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the formation of thymidylic acid in the de novo biosynthetic pathway and is the target enzyme for a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. The TS gene is expressed at a much higher level in proliferating cells than in quiescent cells. Control is primarily exerted at the posttranscriptional level. Studies with chimeric TS minigenes have shown that regulation of TS mRNA content in growth-stimulated mouse fibroblasts requires the presence of sequences located upstream of the essential promoter elements. In addition, an efficiently spliced intron must be present within the transcript. Neither sequence by itself is sufficient for proper regulation, suggesting that the upstream and downstream sequences may communicate to effect regulation. A possible mechanism by which the upstream sequences influence the efficiency of splicing of TS transcripts in a cell cycle specific manner is described.Expression of the human TS gene is also controlled at the translational level. The TS enzyme is able to block the translation of its own mRNA by binding to the message in the vicinity of the AUG start codon. The translational block is relieved in the presence of substrates or inhibitors of the enzyme. The autogenous translational regulation of TS mRNA is likely to be responsible for the rapid increase in TS enzyme level that occurs when cells are exposed to certain TS inhibitors. Elucidation of the mechanism by which the translational control is exerted may lead to the design of more effective TS inhibitors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: mRNA export ; cell cycle ; gene transfection ; cultured mammalian cells ; hnRNP L ; nuclear transport ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The pre-mRNA processing enhancer (PPE) element is an RNA sequence element derived from the intronless HSV-TK gene. Insertion of the element into the highly intron-dependent human β-globin gene leads to efficient expression in the absence of splicing. We have analyzed the effect of the PPE element on the expression of mouse thymidylate synthase (TS) minigenes. We have previously shown that the expression of intronless TS minigenes is moderately (up to 20-fold) stimulated by the inclusion of introns. Furthermore, S phase-specific expression of TS minigenes in growth-stimulated cells depends on the presence of a spliceable intron as well as the TS promoter. The goal of our study was to determine if the PPE element would overcome the dependence on introns for efficient expression and for S phase-specific expression of transfected TS minigenes. We found that insertion of the PPE element into an intronless TS minigene partially overcame intron dependence. However, the increase in expression was much less than that observed for the intronless β-globin gene. We also found that intronless TS or HSV-TK genes that contained the PPE element and that were driven by the TS promoter were expressed at a constant level in serum-stimulated cells. However, when an intron was included in these genes, they were expressed in an S phase-specific manner. Thus the PPE element was not able to overcome the dependence on introns for S phase-specific expression of TS minigenes. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:104-116, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have previously shown that when resting 3T6 cells are serum stimulated in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis, poly(A)(+) mRNA content increases extremely rapidly relative to cells stimulated in the absence of drug. Poly(A)(+) mRNA content nearly doubles within two hours, but then remains constant for at least ten hours (Johnson and Meister, '77). In this report we show that continuous exposure to both serum and cycloheximide are required to maintain this elevated mRNA level. Removal of either leads to an equally rapid decrease in poly(A)(+) mRNA content. If cycloheximide is withdrawn at either two or ten hours following serum stimulation in the presence of the drug, allowing the rapid (〈 30 minutes) restoration of the rate of protein synthesis, we observe that poly(A)(+) mRNA content decreases within two hours to a level nearly equal to that found in resting cells prior to stimulation. If the drug is withdrawn but the serum stimulus is not, the rapid decrease in poly(A)(+) mRNA content is followed by an increase which is parallel to that which occurs in cultures stimulated in the absence of drug, but displaced from the latter by an interval approximately equal to the length of exposure of the drug. These results show that the mammalian cell is able to decrease as well as increase its content of poly(A)(+) mRNA in response to drug induced perturbations in the rate of protein synthesis. The changes in poly(A)(+) mRNA content occur extremely rapidly and may represent an attempt by the cell to correct the perturbation.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When 3T6 cells undergo a serum-induced transition from resting to growing state, the number of ribosomes and the amounts of mRNA and tRNA increase as the cells prepare for DNA synthesis. We have examined the effect of preventing ribosome synthesis during this transition. When resting cells are stimulated to grow in the presence of 5-fluorouridine, mRNA accumulates normally during the first eight hours, though new ribosome formation is completely blocked by the drug. At later times, mRNA continues to accumulate, but at a reduced rate. The ratio of poly A(+) mRNA to rRNA increases from the value characteristic of resting 3T6 (1.8%) to that of growing 3T6 (2.7%) by five hours, and continues to increase to abnormally high values after this time.Although labelling of tRNA is not affected after brief exposure of cells to fluorouridine, the drug prevents the later accumulation of tRNA that ordinarily occurs following serum stimulation of resting cells. This failure of accumulation is not the result of increased lability of fluorinated tRNA, but is probably due to failure of the transcription rate of pre-tRNA to increase. It is possible that this effect might be due to a regulatory system coupling tRNA content to ribosome content.In cultures stimulated with serum in the presence of fluorouridine the rate of protein synthesis increases with poly A(+) mRNA content during the first eight hours; it then fails to increase further, possibly because ribosomes become rate-limiting.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 92 (1977), S. 57-64 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When resting 3T6 cells undergo a serum-induced transition to the growing state, the cytoplasmic content of ribosomal, transfer and messenger RNA increase as the cells prepare for DNA synthesis. The normal linear increase in mRNA content occurs even when the production of ribosomes is blocked. In this paper we determine the effect of inhibiting protein synthesis on the increase in poly(A) (+) mRNA content. Resting cells were serum stimulated in the presence of cycloheximide or puromycin at levels which inhibit protein synthesis by greater than 95%. Cytoplasmic poly(A) (+) mRNA content was determined at various times thereafter. We found that mRNA content increased five to ten times more rapidly in drug treated cells than in control cells stimulated in the absence of inhibitors. mRNA content increased 50-70% by one hour, and 60-90% by two hours following stimulation in the presence of inhibitor, and remained more or less constant thereafter. In contrast, mRNA content increased linearly in control stimulated cultures and did not double until about 15 hours after stimulation. The rapid increase in mRNA content is most likely the result of inhibition of protein synthesis rather than a secondary effect of the drug since the same observations were made in growth stimulated cells if protein synthesis was blocked with either puromycin or cycloheximide.A similar effect was also observed with resting 3T6, exponentially growing 3T6 and growing HeLa cells following exposure to cycloheximide, although the magnitude of the increase was less than that observed with growth stimulated cells. Puromycin had negligible effect on mRNA content in resting or exponentially growing cells.The rapid increase in cytoplasmic poly(A) (+) mRNA content was not due to rapid unbalanced export of nuclear poly(A) (+) RNA into the cytoplasm since there was no decrease in nuclear poly(A) content following serum stimulation in the presence of cycloheximide.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have studied the rate of transcription of the gene for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in mouse 3T6 fibroblasts during serum-induced transitions between the resting (G0) and growing states. As a model system, we have used a methotrexate-resistant 3T6 cell line that overproduces DHFR and its mRNA about 300-fold, yet regulates the expression of the DHFR gene in the same manner as normal 3T6 cells. In previous studies, we showed that the rate of production of cytoplasmic DHFR mRNA relative to total mRNA is about 4 times lower in resting than in exponentially growing cells. The rate increases to the growing value by about 15 hr following serum stimulation of the resting cells. This increase appeared to be controlled by regulating the rate of synthesis of DHFR hnRNA. In this study, we analyze the transcription of the DHFR gene in more detail. We use a variety of labeling times and RNA extraction procedures to measure the rate of synthesis of DHFR hnRNA relative to total hnRNA in pulse-labeled cells or in nuclei isolated from cells at various times following serum stimulation. The amount of labeled DHFR RNA is determined by DNA-excess filter hybridization. In all cases, the relative rate of synthesis of DHFR hnRNA increases at the same time, and to the same extent, as the rate of production of DHFR mRNA, suggesting that the increase in DHFR mRNA production is due to a corresponding increase in the rate of transcription of the DHFR gene. The increase in DHFR gene transcription is not blocked by cytosine arabinoside, showing that the increase does not depend on gene duplication. In isolated nuclei, DHFR RNA synthesis is inhibited by α-amanitin (1 μg/ml), indicating that the DHFR gene is transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Others have shown that when stationary phase cells are stimulated to proliferate, the increase in DHFR mRNA content is controlled primarily at the post-transcriptional level. Therefore, it appears that the rate of production of DHFR mRNA is controlled by different biochemical mechanisms when cells are in different physiological states.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA content increases about 20-fold when growth-stimulated mouse cells progress from the GO/G1 phase into the S phase of the cell cycle. Previous studies, using a cell line in which the TS gene is amplified (LU3-7), indicated that transcriptional initiation as well as polyadenylation of the mRNA occur at several locations in unsynchronized cells. In the present study, we have used S1 nuclease protection assays to analyze the possible significance of the multiple transcriptional initiation and polyadenylation sites. We found that the same pattern of 5′ and 3′ termini were detected with RNA isolated from the overproducing cells as with RNA isolated from the parental mouse 3T6 cell line, demonstrating that the heterogeneous termini are not a consequence of gene amplification. There was no change in the pattern of 5′ or 3′ termini with either cell line during the progression from G1 phase through S phase in serum-stimulated cells. Therefore, the increase in TS mRNA content is not the result of differential utilization of the various transcriptional initiation or polyadenylation sites. Analyses of poly(A)- deficient cytoplasmic TS RNA showed that the 5′ termini were the same as those found in poly(A)+ mRNA. However, the 3′ termini were extremely heterogeneous in length. Although some of the poly(A)- deficient RNA extended beyond the normal site of polyadenylation, most of it was shorter than full-length TS mRNA.
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