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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Wu, Henry C; Felis, Thomas; Scholz, Denis; Giry, Cyril; Kölling, Martin; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Scheffers, Sander R (2017): Changes to Yucatán Peninsula precipitation associated with salinity and temperature extremes of the Caribbean Sea during the Maya civilization collapse. Scientific Reports, 7, 15825, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15942-0
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Explanations of the Classic Maya civilization demise on the Yucatán Peninsula during the Terminal Classic Period (TCP; ~CE 750-1050) are controversial. Multiyear droughts are one likely cause, but the role of the Caribbean Sea, the dominant moisture source for Mesoamerica, remains largely unknown. Here we present bimonthly-resolved snapshots of reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS) variability in the southern Caribbean from precisely dated fossil corals. The results indicate pronounced interannual to decadal SST and SSS variability during the TCP, which may be temporally coherent to precipitation anomalies on the Yucatán. Our results are best explained by changed Caribbean SST gradients affecting the Caribbean low-level atmospheric jet with consequences for Mesoamerican precipitation, which are possibly linked to changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation strength. Our findings provide a new perspective on the anomalous hydrological changes during the TCP that complement the oft-suggested southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. We advocate for a strong role of Caribbean SST and SSS condition changes and related ocean-atmosphere interactions that notably influenced the propagation and transport of precipitation to the Yucatán Peninsula during the TCP.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 7 datasets
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Obert, J Christina; Scholz, Denis; Felis, Thomas; Lippold, Jörg; Jochum, Klaus-Peter; Andreae, Meinrat O (2019): Improved constraints on open-system processes in fossil reef corals by combined Th/U, Pa/U and Ra/Th dating: A case study from Aqaba, Jordan. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 245, 459-478, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2018.11.024
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Here we present 230Th/U, 231Pa/U as well as 226Ra/230Th isotope ratios from five fossil reef corals of Last Interglacial origin from the Gulf of Aqaba, Northern Red Sea. The results show clear evidence for open-system behaviour with strongly elevated δ234U values and U concentrations indicating post-depositional U addition. The combined application of all isotope systems enables us to better constrain the nature and timing of the open-system processes than only based on the 230Th/U data. Quantitative modelling of the diagenetic processes allowed us to reproduce the trends in the isotope ratios. Two of the five corals were probably affected by two separate phases of U addition with different δ234U values. The trends observed for two other corals can be explained by U addition followed by U loss. The fifth coral shows signs of both U gain and loss at the same time in the more recent past. The timing of the diagenetic processes is remarkably similar for the five corals and can be constrained to approx. 1 and 6 thousand years (ka) and 100 and 102 ka after coral growth, respectively. Based on the modelling results, we suggest that conventional 231Pa/230Th ages provide the best estimate for the true age of four of the five corals, which range from 109.1 to 114.1 ka. This implies a late Last Interglacial time of deposition. For the fifth coral, the most reliable age estimate is the conventional 230Th/U age of one of the subsamples (117.3 ka), based on a concordia diagram for all subsamples. The timing of the modelled open-system processes suggests that the early event of U addition was associated with interaction of the corals with 234U-enriched seawater or saline groundwater. The later open-system event can be described as U redistribution within the coral reef, since some corals apparently lost U while others gained U. The timing of the second event is broadly consistent with the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, which was probably characterised by enhanced wetness in this typically hyper-arid region.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 312 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: The North Atlantic Oscillation is the dominant atmospheric pressure mode in the North Atlantic region and affects winter temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean, northwest Europe, Greenland, and Asia1. The index1 that describes the sea-level pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores is correlated with a dipole precipitation pattern over northwest Europe and northwest Africa. How the North Atlantic Oscillation will develop as the Greenland ice sheet melts is unclear2. A potential past analogue is the early Holocene, during which melting ice sheets around the North Atlantic3, 4 freshened surface waters, affecting the strength of the meridional overturning circulation5. Here we present a Holocene rainfall record from northwest Africa based on speleothem δ18O and compare it against a speleothem-based rainfall record from Europe6. The two records are positively correlated during the early Holocene, followed by a shift to an anti-correlation, similar to the modern record, during the mid-Holocene. On the basis of our simulations with an Earth system model, we suggest the shift to the anti-correlation reflects a large-scale atmospheric and oceanic reorganization in response to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet and a strong reduction of meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, pointing to a potential sensitivity of the North Atlantic Oscillation to the melting of ice sheets.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1751-908X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: We have developed a new database named GeoReM () for reference materials and isotopic standards of geochemical and mineralogical interest. Reference samples include rock powders originating from the USGS, GSJ, GIT-IWG, synthetic and natural reference glasses originating from NIST, USGS, MPI-DING, as well as mineral (e.g., 91500 zircon), isotopic (e.g., La Jolla, E&A, NIST SRM 981), river water and seawater reference materials. GeoReM is a relational database, which strongly follows the concept of the three EARTHCHEM databases. It contains published analytical and compilation values (major and trace element concentrations, radiogenic and stable isotope ratios), important metadata about the analytical values, such as uncertainty, uncertainty type, method and laboratory. Sample information and references are also included. Three different ways of interrogating the database are possible: (1) sample names or material types, (2) chemical criteria and (3) bibliography. Some typical applications are described. GeoReM currently (October 2005) contains more than 750 geological reference materials, 6000 individual sets of results and references to 650 publications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1751-908X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The USGS reference glasses GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G, GSE-1G, BCR-2G, BHVO-2G and BIR-1G were investigated by different analytical techniques. All these materials have a geological (basaltic) matrix and are therefore useful in igneous geochemistry as matrix-matched reference materials for microanalytical techniques. The new GS glasses have trace elements in groups at concentration levels of about 〈 0.01, 5, 50 and 500 μg g-1. Their major element compositions have been determined by EPMA, and trace elements have been analysed by LA-ICP-MS and two isotope dilution techniques using TIMS and ICP-MS. EPMA and LA-ICP-MS analyses indicated that the USGS reference glasses are homogeneous at the μm to mm scale with respect to major (variations 〈 1-2%) and most trace elements (variations 1-4%). Trace element data obtained from the different analytical techniques agreed within an uncertainty of 1-5%, indicating that between method results are comparable. Therefore, the preliminary working values for the four USGS GS glasses calculated from these data have a low level of uncertainty.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1751-908X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: We present a multi-element technique for the simultaneous determination of twelve trace elements in geological materials by combined isotope dilution (ID) sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) following simple sample digestion. In addition, the concentrations of fourteen other trace elements have been obtained using the ID determined elements as internal standards. This method combines the advantages of ID (high precision and accuracy) with those of SF-ICP-MS (multi-element capability, fast sample processing without element separation) and overcomes the most prevailing drawbacks of ICP-MS (matrix effects and drift in sensitivity). Trace element concentration data for BHVO-1 (n = 5) reproduced to within 1–3% RSD with an accuracy of 1–2% relative to respective literature values for ID values and 2–3% for all other values. We have applied this technique to the analysis of seventeen geological reference materials from the USGS, GSJ and IAG. The sample set also included the new USGS reference glasses BCR-2G, BHVO-2G and BIR-1G, as well as the MPI-DING reference glasses KL2-G and ML3B-G, and NIST SRM 612. Most data agreed within 3–4% with respective literature data. The concentration data for the USGS reference glasses agreed in most cases with respective data of the original rock powder within the combined standard uncertainty of the method (2–3%), except the U concentration of BIR-1G, which showed a three times higher concentration compared to BIR-1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-22
    Description: The occurrence of aragonite in speleothems has commonly been related to high dripwater Mg/Ca ratios, because Mg is known to be a growth inhibitor for calcite. Laboratory aragonite precipitation experiments, however, suggested a more complex array of controlling factors. Here, we present data from Pleistocene to Holocene speleothems collected from both a dolostone and a limestone cave in northern Morocco. These stalagmites exhibit both lateral and stratigraphic calcite-to-aragonite transitions. Aragonite fabrics are well-preserved and represent primary features. In order to shed light on the factors that control alternating calcite and aragonite precipitation, elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, U, P, Y, Pb, Al, Ti and Th) abundances were measured using LA-ICP-MS, and analysed with Principal Component Analysis. Samples were analyzed at 100–200 μm resolution across stratigraphic and lateral transitions. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were analysed at 100 μm resolution covering stratigraphic calcite-to-aragonite transitions. Results show that the precipitation of aragonite was driven by a decrease in effective rainfall, which enhanced prior calcite precipitation. Different geochemical patterns are observed between calcite and aragonite when comparing data from the Grotte de Piste and Grotte Prison de Chien. This may be explained by the increased dripwater Mg/Ca ratio and enhanced prior aragonite precipitation in the dolostone cave versus lower dripwater Mg/Ca ratio and prior calcite precipitation in the limestone cave. A full understanding for the presence of lateral calcite-to-aragonite transitions is not reached. Trace elemental analysis, however, does suggest that different crystallographic parameters (ionic radius, amount of crystal defect sites, adsorption potential) may have a direct effect on the incorporation of Sr, Mg, Ba, Al, Ti, Th and possibly Y and P.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The North Atlantic Oscillation is the dominant atmospheric pressure mode in the North Atlantic region and affects winter temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean, northwest Europe, Greenland, and Asia1. The index that describes the sea-level pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores is correlated with a dipole precipitation pattern over northwest Europe and northwest Africa. How the North Atlantic Oscillation will develop as the Greenland ice sheet melts is unclear. A potential past analogue is the early Holocene, during which melting ice sheets around the North Atlantic, freshened surface waters, affecting the strength of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we present a Holocene rainfall record from northwest Africa based on speleothem δ18O and compare it against a speleothem-based rainfall record from Europe. The two records are positively correlated during the early Holocene, followed by a shift to an anti-correlation, similar to the modern record, during the mid-Holocene. On the basis of our simulations with an Earth system model, we suggest the shift to the anti-correlation reflects a large-scale atmospheric and oceanic reorganization in response to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet and a strong reduction of meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, pointing to a potential sensitivity of the North Atlantic Oscillation to the melting of ice sheets.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-07-21
    Description: This paper contains the results of an extensive isotopic study of United States Geological Survey GSD-1G and MPI-DING reference glasses. Thirteen different laboratories were involved using high-precision bulk (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS) and microanalytical (LA-MC-ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Detailed studies were performed to demonstrate the large-scale and small-scale homogeneity of the reference glasses. Together with previously published isotopic data from ten other laboratories, preliminary reference and information values as well as their uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were determined for H, O, Li, B, Si, Ca, Sr, Nd, Hf, Pb, Th and U isotopes using the recommendations of the International Association of Geoanalysts for certification of reference materials. Our results indicate that GSD-1G and the MPI-DING glasses are suitable reference materials for microanalytical and bulk analytical purposes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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