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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-180-B34
    In: Berichte aus dem Zentrum für Meeres- und Klimaforschung
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 104 S. : Abb. ; 30 cm
    ISSN: 0947-7136
    Series Statement: Berichte aus dem Zentrum für Meeres- und Klimaforschung : Reihe B, Ozeanographie 34
    Language: German
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-07-13
    Description: The seasonal and spatial variation of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (YSECS) is studied using turbidity, temperature and velocity field data from all seasons of 2011. The important hydrodynamic factors affecting the SSC distribution are discussed, based on the field data. The data provide a picture of the seasonal evolution of the SSC in the YSECS in a single year. The results show that the highest surface layer SSC was measured in spring and winter, while the summer had the lowest surface layer SSC. In the bottom layer, the SSC distribution patterns were similar in all seasons except that a much higher SSC water plume extended from the Subei Shoal to the East China Sea shelf in winter survey. The vertical SSC gradient was stronger in the shallow water area than the deep water area, and it was stronger in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. We argue that wind-induced vertical mixing dominated the SSC distribution in the surface layer while the tidal currents played an important role in the bottom layer and sub-tidal currents dominated the horizontal pattern of the SSC distribution pattern over the shelf area. In particular, the presence of the summer thermocline limited the vertical mixing in summer, decreasing the SSC in the surface layer. The front between the East China Sea Coastal Current and the Taiwan Warm Current appears to prevent the high SSC water from being transported to the shelf. The sediment discharged by the Changjiang River was found to be concentrated in the estuary area and influenced the shelf SSC distribution only through the action of the subtidal currents.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-11
    Description: The distribution of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea (BYECS) is studied based on the observed turbidity data and model simulation results. The observed turbidity results show that (i) the highest SSC is found in the coastal areas while in the outer shelf sea areas turbid water is much more difficult to observe, (ii) the surface layer SSC is much lower than the bottom layer SSC and (iii) the winter SSC is higher than the summer SSC. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to simulate the SSC distribution in the BYECS. A comparison between the modeled SSC and the observed SSC in the BYECS shows that the modeled SSC can reproduce the principal features of the SSC distribution in the BYECS. The dynamic mechanisms of the sediment erosion and transport processes are studied based on the modeled results. The horizontal distribution of the SSC in the BYECS is mainly determined by the current-wave induced bottom stress and the fine-grain sediment distribution. The current-induced bottom stress is much higher than the wave-induced bottom stress, which means the tidal currents play a more significant role in the sediment resuspension than the wind waves. The vertical mixing strength is studied based on the mixed layer depth and the turbulent kinetic energy distribution in the BYECS. The strong winter time vertical mixing, which is mainly caused by the strong wind stress and surface cooling, leads to high surface layer SSC in winter. High surface layer SSC in summer is restricted in the coastal areas.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: A regional ocean circulation model (ROMS) is used to simulate the Chinese land-derived sediment transport in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea (BYECS). The model includes the effect of currents, tides, and waves on the sediment transport and is used to study the pathway and dynamic mechanisms of the fine-grain sediment transport from the Huanghe River (Yellow River), the Old Huanghe Delta, and the Changjiang River (Yangtze River) in the BYECS. The seasonal variability of the sediment transport in the BYECS and the sources of the Yellow Sea Trough mud patch, the mud patch southwest of Cheju Island, the mud patch offshore from the Zhejiang and Fujian provinces and the Okinawa Trough mud patch are discussed. The results show that the Huanghe River sediment can be transported to the Yellow Sea Trough, but little makes it to the outer shelf while the Old Huanghe Delta sediment is mainly transported to the Yellow Sea Trough. Most of the sediment from the Changjiang River mouth is carried to the mud patch off the coast of the Zhejiang and Fujian provinces but with part of this sediment also transported to the Yellow Sea Trough. The model shows that it is difficult to transport land-derived sediment to the Okinawa Trough mud patch under normal conditions. The model also has difficulty accounting for the deposition of sediment in the region to the southwest of Cheju Island and offshore from the Zhejiang and Fujian provinces, an issue requiring further study.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-05-01
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 45 (2015): 2773–2789, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-15-0031.1.
    Description: Tidal oscillatory salt transport, induced by the correlation between tidal variations in salinity and velocity, is an important term for the subtidal salt balance under the commonly used Eulerian method of salt transport decomposition. In this paper, its mechanisms in a partially stratified estuary are investigated with a numerical model of the Hudson estuary. During neap tides, when the estuary is strongly stratified, the tidal oscillatory salt transport is mainly due to the hydraulic response of the halocline to the longitudinal variation of topography. This mechanism does not involve vertical mixing, so it should not be regarded as oscillatory shear dispersion, but instead it should be regarded as advective transport of salt, which results from the vertical distortion of exchange flow obtained in the Eulerian decomposition by vertical fluctuations of the halocline. During spring tides, the estuary is weakly stratified, and vertical mixing plays a significant role in the tidal variation of salinity. In the spring tide regime, the tidal oscillatory salt transport is mainly due to oscillatory shear dispersion. In addition, the transient lateral circulation near large channel curvature causes the transverse tilt of the halocline. This mechanism has little effect on the cross-sectionally integrated tidal oscillatory salt transport, but it results in an apparent left–right cross-channel asymmetry of tidal oscillatory salt transport. With the isohaline framework, tidal oscillatory salt transport can be regarded as a part of the net estuarine salt transport, and the Lagrangian advective mechanism and dispersive mechanism can be distinguished.
    Description: Tao Wang was supported by the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research (Grant SKLEC-KF201509) and Chinese Scholarship Council. Geyer was supported by by NSF Grant OCE 0926427. Wensheng Jiang was supported by NSFC-Shandong Joint Fund for Marine Science Research Centers (Grant U1406401).
    Description: 2016-05-01
    Keywords: Geographic location/entity ; Estuaries ; Circulation/ Dynamics ; Baroclinic flows ; Dispersion ; Shear structure/flows ; Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena ; Diapycnal mixing ; Models and modeling ; Regional models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-04-01
    Description: With a depth-averaged numerical model, the tidally induced Lagrangian residual current in a model bay was studied. To correctly reflect the long-term mass transport, it is appropriate to use the Lagrangian residual velocity (LRV) rather than the Eulerian residual velocity (ERV) or the Eulerian residual transport velocity (ETV) to describe the residual current. The parameter κ , which is defined as the ratio of the typical tidal amplitude at the open boundary to the mean water depth, is considered to be the indicator of the nonlinear effect in the system. It is found that the feasibility of making the mass transport velocity (MTV) approximate the LRV is strongly dependent on κ . The error between the MTV and the LRV tends to increase with a growing κ . An additional error will come from the various initial tidal phases due to the Lagrangian drift velocity (LDV) when κ is no longer small. According to the residual vorticity equation based on the MTV, the Coriolis effect is found to influence the residual vorticity mainly through the curl of the tidal stress. A significant difference in the flow pattern indicates that the LRV is sensitive to the bottom friction in different forms. ©2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-10-01
    Description: Storm surges in the Bohai Sea are not only associated with tropical cyclones and extra-tropical cyclones, but also cold-air outbreaks. Cold-air outbreaks attack China from four major tracks, with each track having its own prevailing wind over the Bohai Sea. As the pressure field of cold-air outbreaks can be converted into the surface wind, storm surges can be investigated by the pressure field of cold-air outbreaks entirely. This paper took the different major tracks, pressure field, and high wind period into consideration and constructed 20 scenarios to describe the actual situation of cold-air outbreaks. Based on the results modeled by FVCOM, the influence of various cold-air outbreaks on the maximum surge in the Bohai Sea and the probability of the surge elevation at three typical tide gauges were investigated. Finally, a powerful decision-making tool to estimate storm surges induced by cold-air outbreaks was provided. ©2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Print ISSN: 0921-030X
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-0840
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-08-01
    Description: The 3D first-order Lagrangian residual velocity (LRV) equation is established, and its analytical solution is obtained in a narrow bay. The results show clearly the 3D structure of the first-order LRV. When the exponential bottom profile is assumed, the upper half layer of the water flows in through the deep channel from the open boundary directly to the head of the bay. Then the water will return to the area surrounding the lower half of the inflow area. The downwelling area is located mainly at the deep channel, while the upwelling area occupies both sides of the bay. The inter-tidal water transport, obtained by integrating the 3D first-order LRV through the water column, has a pattern similar to the previous study in which the 2D depth-averaged Lagrangian residual current equations were solved. The inter-tidal water transport is used to analyze the water exchange, and it is found that the water exchange at different cross sections increases smoothly with the distance between the cross sections and the head of the bay until about one wavelength. It is also found that the pattern of the breadth-averaged Lagrangian residual current varies with the length of the bay if a non-flat bottom profile is used. The depth-integrated LRV and the breadth-averaged LRV are mainly determined by the different terms of the tidal body force, with the former determined by the bottom friction related term and the latter by the eddy viscosity related term. When the bay is longer than one wavelength, different results in the outer bay can be observed. ©2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-11-01
    Description: In this study, the data from three long-term observation stations, Aburatsu, Xiamen, and Hong Kong, which are located on the northwest Pacific Ocean coast, were analyzed to estimate the 100-year annual maximum water levels. The performances of four common frequency analysis methods, namely the Gumbel, Weibull, GEV, and GPD distributions, were evaluated. It is found that the GEV model performs best among these four distribution models in Hong Kong and Aburatsu, whereas the Gumbel distribution is the best at the Xiamen station. It is also found that the GEV model generally performs better than the Gumbel model in regard to the mean high correlation coefficient and the mean minimum root-mean-square error. Moreover, in this study, the r -largest value model was used to study temporal trends in the 50-year annual maximum water levels on the northwest Pacific coast over the past fifty years using the observation data of Hong Kong, Xiamen, and Aburatsu. The results show that there are two temporal features in the 50-year return levels at all three stations, with the first being an overall increasing trend over the whole period and the other being an oscillatory trend over the period of observation. The relationships between the temporal trends and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), sea level rise, and change of typhoons were also analyzed in this paper. It is found that when the PDO index is shifted to be 4 years in advance, a significantly negative correlation will occur between the PDO index and the 50-year return levels. However, sea level rise and changes of typhoons cause the overall increase over the entire period. ©2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
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    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-12-01
    Description: In this paper, a new particle image velocimetry (PIV)-based measurement method is proposed to obtain the high-resolution tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field in the laboratory. A long gravity wave was generated to simulate the tide in a narrow tank full of water laden with PIV particles. Consecutive charge-coupled device (CCD) images were recorded with the studied layer illuminated with a laser beam. Two images separated by one tidal period were processed by applying the pattern-matching algorithm to get the horizontal tide-induced Lagrangian residual current field. The results coincide with sporadic results from the traditional surface-float tracing method, but with much higher spatial resolution and accuracy. Furthermore, it is found that the direct acquisition of the Lagrangian residual current may reduce the error at least by one order compared with those acquisition methods that require the detailed information of the tidal cycle. ©2013 The Author(s)〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="http://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-013-0654-9" target="_blank"〉〈img src="http://bib.telegrafenberg.de/typo3temp/pics/f2f773b55e.png" border="0"〉〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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