Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract To assess differences between object and pixel-based reservoir modeling techniques, ten realizations of a UK Continental Shelf braided fluvial reservoir were produced using Boolean Simulation (BS) and Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS). Various sensitivities associated with geological input data as well as with technique-specific modeling parameters were analyzed for both techniques. The resulting realizations from the object-based and pixel-based modeling efforts were assessed by visual inspection and by evaluation of the values and ranges of the single-phase effective permeability tensors, obtained through upscaling. The BS method performed well for the modeling of two types of fluvial channels, yielding well-confined channels, but failed to represent the complex interaction of these with sheetflood and other deposits present in the reservoir. SIS gave less confined channels and had great difficulty in representing the large-scale geometries of one type of channel while maintaining its appropriate proportions. Adding an SIS background to the Boolean channels, as opposed to a Boolean background, resulted in an improved distribution of sheetflood bodies. The permeability results indicated that the SIS method yielded models with much higher horizontal permeability values (20–100%) and lower horizontal anisotropy than the BS versions. By widening the channel distribution and increasing the range of azimuths, however, the BS-produced models gave results approaching the SIS behavior. For this reservoir, we chose to combine the two methods by using object-based channels and a pixel-based heterogeneous background, resulting in moderate permeability and anisotropy levels.
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